Adult Dirofilaria roemeri were transplanted subcutaneously into two grey kangaroos and intraperitoneally into seven laboratory rats in an investigation of amicrofilaraemia, and for experimental transmission studies. Low level blood microfilaraemias of only short duration were produced in all but one rat, supporting the hypothesis that the grey kangaroo is an abnormal host of this parasite. Cortisone was instrumental in the success of D. roemeri in rats. Peritoneal lavage of rats harbouring transplanted D. roemeri proved an excellent source of microfilariae. Injection of large numbers of microfilariae into the saphenous veins of rats harbouring transplanted worms failed to alter the number of circulating microfilariae. D. roemeri failed to develop in Aedes aegypti, fed on rats harbouring transplanted worms and exhibiting blood microfilaraemia. One kangaroo, to which worms had been transplanted, was exposed to the bites of Dasybasis hebes (Diptera, Tabanidae) in the study area and acquired a natural infection of D. roemeri.