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We present the data and initial results from the first pilot survey of the Evolutionary Map of the Universe (EMU), observed at 944 MHz with the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) telescope. The survey covers
of an area covered by the Dark Energy Survey, reaching a depth of 25–30
rms at a spatial resolution of
11–18 arcsec, resulting in a catalogue of
220 000 sources, of which
180 000 are single-component sources. Here we present the catalogue of single-component sources, together with (where available) optical and infrared cross-identifications, classifications, and redshifts. This survey explores a new region of parameter space compared to previous surveys. Specifically, the EMU Pilot Survey has a high density of sources, and also a high sensitivity to low surface brightness emission. These properties result in the detection of types of sources that were rarely seen in or absent from previous surveys. We present some of these new results here.
The first episode of psychosis is a critical period in the emergence of cardiometabolic risk.
We set out to explore the influence of individual and lifestyle factors on cardiometabolic outcomes in early psychosis.
This was a prospective cohort study of 293 UK adults presenting with first-episode psychosis investigating the influence of sociodemographics, lifestyle (physical activity, sedentary behaviour, nutrition, smoking, alcohol, substance use) and medication on cardiometabolic outcomes over the following 12 months.
Rates of obesity and glucose dysregulation rose from 17.8% and 12%, respectively, at baseline to 23.7% and 23.7% at 1 year. Little change was seen over time in the 76.8% tobacco smoking rate or the quarter who were sedentary for over 10 h daily. We found no association between lifestyle at baseline or type of antipsychotic medication prescribed with either baseline or 1-year cardiometabolic outcomes. Median haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) rose by 3.3 mmol/mol in participants from Black and minority ethnic (BME) groups, with little change observed in their White counterparts. At 12 months, one-third of those with BME heritage exceeded the threshold for prediabetes (HbA1c >39 mmol/mol).
Unhealthy lifestyle choices are prevalent in early psychosis and cardiometabolic risk worsens over the next year, creating an important window for prevention. We found no evidence, however, that preventative strategies should be preferentially directed based on lifestyle habits. Further work is needed to determine whether clinical strategies should allow for differential patterns of emergence of cardiometabolic risk in people of different ethnicities.
The two major approaches to studying macroevolution in deep time are the fossil record and reconstructed relationships among extant taxa from molecular data. Results based on one approach sometimes conflict with those based on the other, with inconsistencies often attributed to inherent flaws of one (or the other) data source. Any contradiction between the molecular and fossil records represents a failure of our ability to understand the imperfections of our data, as both are limited reflections of the same evolutionary history. We therefore need to develop conceptual and mathematical models that jointly explain our observations in both records. Fortunately, the different limitations of each record provide an opportunity to test or calibrate the other, and new methodological developments leverage both records simultaneously. However, we must reckon with the distinct relationships between sampling and time in the fossil record and molecular phylogenies. These differences impact our recognition of baselines and the analytical incorporation of age estimate uncertainty.
In 2011, 14 Midwest trial locations evaluated tolerance of an AAD-1 and glyphosate-resistant corn hybrid to a 2,4-D choline+glyphosate premix formulation applied single and sequential POST at V4 and/or V7 corn with and without a PRE application of 2,4-D dimethylamine (DMA). Herbicides were applied at 1X and 2X maximum use rates with 1X rates of 1120 g ae ha−1 for glyphosate and 2,4-D DMA and 1065+1120 g ae ha−1 for the 2,4-D choline+glyphosate premix, respectively. Crop response was greatest 2 d after 2X rate applications, resulting in 4 to 10% visible injury to corn across application timings. No brace root injury or effect on corn grain yield were observed.
During the middle Pleistocene Nome River glaciation of northwestern Alaska, glaciers covered an area an order of magnitude more extensive than during any subsequent glacial intervals. The age of the Nome River glaciation is constrained by laser-fusion 40Ar/39Ar analyses of basaltic lava that overlies Nome River drift at Minnie Creek, central Seward Peninsula, that average 470,000 ± 190,000 yr (±1σ). Milligram-size subsamples of the lava were dated to identify and eliminate extraneous 40Ar enrichments that rendered the mean of conventional K-Ar dates on larger bulk samples of the same flow too old (700,000 ± 570,000 yr). While the 40Ar/39Ar analyses provide a minimum limiting age for the Nome River glaciation, maximum ages are provided by a provisional K-Ar date on a basaltic lava flow that underlies the Nome River drift at nearby Lave Creek, by paleomagnetic determinations of the drift itself at and near the type locality, and by amino acid epimerization analysis of molluscan fossils from nearshore sediments of the Anvilian marine transgression that underlie Nome River drift on the coastal plain at Nome. Taken together, the new age data indicate that the glaciation took place between 580,000 and 280,000 yr ago. The altitude of the Anvilian deposits suggests that eustatic sea level during the Anvilian transgression rose at least as high as and probably higher than during the last interglacial transgression; by correlation with the marine oxygen-isotope record, the transgression probably dates to stage 11 at 410,000 yr, and the Nome River glaciation is younger still. Analyses of floor altitudes of presumed Nome River cirques indicate that the Nome River regional snowline depression was at least twice that of the maximum late Wisconsin. The cause of the enhanced snowline lowering appears to be related to greater availability of moisture in northwestern Alaska during the middle Pleistocene.
Drift, evidently of Illinoian age, was deposited on St. Lawrence Island at the margin of an ice cap that covered the highlands of the Chukotka Peninsula of Siberia and spread far eastward on the continental shelf of northern Bering Sea. Underlying the drift on the northwestward part of the island are mollusk-bearing beds deposited during the Kotzebuan Transgression.
A comparison of mollusk faunas from St. Lawrence Island, Chukotka Peninsula, and Kotzebue Sound suggests that the present northward flow through Bering and Anadyr Straits was reversed during the Kotzebuan Transgression. Cold arctic water penetrated southward and southwestward bringing an arctic fauna to the Gulf of Anadyr. Warmer Pacific water probably entered eastern Bering Sea, passed eastward and northeastward around eastern and northern St. Lawrence Island, and then became entrained in the southward currents that passed through Anadyr Strait.
This paper attempts to relate current knowledge of sea-level history in Beringia to the Broecker-van Donk “Termination” concept of climatic and sea-level history. The Einahnuhtan transgression is thought to represent Termination III, which according to Broecker and van Donk, took place about 225,000 y.a. The Kotzebuan transgression is thought to represent a positive fluctuation that modulated the generally falling sea level during the ensuing 100,000 yr. Sea level probably fell to about −135 m in the Bering Sea area during the maximum phase of the penultimate glaciation. The two Pelukian shorelines probably represent Termination II (about 125,000 yr BP in the Broecker-van Donk chronology) and one of the two positive fluctuations that modulated the generally falling sea level of early Wisconsinan time, about 105,000 and 80,000 y.a. according to Broecker and van Donk. Another positive modulation brought sea level to at least −20 m, about 30,000 y.a. Sea level evidently fell to between −90 and −100 m during the late Wisconsinan regression, but a substantial part of the outer Bering shelf remained submerged. Submerged shoreline features at −38m, −30 m, −24 to −20 m, and −12 to −10 m represent stillstands or slight regressions that modulated Termination I, the late Wisconsinan, and early Holocene recovery of sea level.
The Canyon Creek vertebrate-fossil locality is an extensive road cut near Fairbanks that exposes sediments that range in age from early Wisconsin to late Holocene. Tanana River gravel at the base of the section evidently formed during the Delta Glaciation of the north-central Alaska Range. Younger layers and lenses of fluvial sand are interbedded with arkosic gravel from Canyon Creek that contains tephra as well as fossil bones of an interstadial fauna about 40,000 years old. Solifluction deposits containing ventifacts, wedge casts, and rodent burrows formed during a subsequent period of periglacial activity that took place during the maximum phase of Donnelly Glaciation about 25,000–17,000 years ago. Overlying sheets of eolian sand are separated by a 9500-year-old paleosol that may correlate with a phase of early Holocene spruce expansion through central Alaska. The Pleistocene fauna from Canyon Creek consists of rodents (indicated by burrows), Mammuthus primigenius (woolly mammoth), Equus lambei (Yukon wild ass), Camelops hesternus (western camel), Bison sp. cf. B. crassicornis (large-horned bison), Ovis sp. cf.O. dalli (mountain sheep), Canis sp. cf. C. lupus (wolf), Lepus sp. cf. L. othus or L. arcticus (tundra hare), and Rangifer sp. (caribou). This assemblage suggests an open landscape in which trees and tall shrubs were either absent or confined to sheltered and moist sites. Camelops evidently was present in eastern Beringia during the middle Wisconsin interstadial interval but may have disappeared during the following glacial episode. The stratigraphic section at Canyon Creek appears to demonstrate that the Delta Glaciation of the north-central Alaska Range is at least in part of early Wisconsin age and was separated from the succeeding Donnelly Glaciation by an interstadial rather than interglacial episode.
The last interglacial high sea-level stand, the Pelukian transgression of isotope substage 5e, is recorded along the western and northern coasts of Alaska by discontinuous but clearly traceable marine terraces and coastal landforms up to about 10 m altitude. The stratigraphy indicates that sea level reached this altitude only once during the last interglacial cycle. From the type area at Nome, to St. Lawrence Island in the Bering Sea, to the eastern limit of the Beaufort Sea, Pelukian deposits contain extralimital faunas indicating that coastal waters were warmer than present. Amino acid ratios in molluscs from these deposits decrease to the north toward Barrow, consistent with the modern regional temperature gradient. Fossil assemblages at Nome and St. Lawrence Island suggest that the winter sea-ice limit was north of Bering Strait, at least 800 km north of its present position, and the Bering Sea was perennially ice-free. Microfauna in Pelukian sediments recovered from boreholes indicate that Atlantic water may have been present on the shallow Beaufort Shelf, suggesting that the Arctic Ocean was not stratified and the Arctic sea-ice cover was not perennial for some period. In coastal regions of western Alaska, spruce woodlands extended westward beyond their modern range and in northern Alaska, on the Arctic Coastal Plain, spruce groves may have entered the upper Colville River basin. The Flaxman Member of the Gubik Formation on the Alaskan Arctic Coastal Plain was deposited during marine isotope substage 5a and records the breakup of an intra-stage 5 ice sheet over northwestern Keewatin.
Paleoenvironmental conditions are reconstructed from soils buried under volcanic ash ca. 21,500 years ago on the Seward Peninsula. Soil development was minimal, reflecting the continuous regional deposition of loess, which originated from river floodplains and the exposed Chukchi shelf. Cryoturbated soil horizons, ice wedges, and ice-lens formation indicate a permafrost environment and mean annual temperatures below −6° to −8°C. Shallow active layers (average 45 cm), minimal evidence for chemical leaching of soils, and the presence of earthen hummocks indicate a cold and seasonally dry climate. Neither steppe nor polar desert soils are appropriate analogues for these zonal soils of loess-covered central Beringia. No exact analogues are known; however, soils underlying dry tundra near the arctic coast of northern Yakutia, Russia, and under moist, nonacidic tundra of the Alaskan North Slope have properties in common with the buried soils.
Sediment cores from three lakes in the Upper Kolyma region, northeast Russia, provide the first well-dated continuous record of late Quaternary vegetation change from far southwestern Beringia. The oldest pollen zone, tentatively assigned to the Karginsk (mid-Wisconsinan) Interstade, indicates an Artemisia shrub tundra with Pinus pumila, Betula, and Alnus at mid- to low elevations. With the onset of the Sartan (late Wisconsinan) Stade, Pinus disappeared, probably indicating severely cold, dry winters and cool summers. As conditions deteriorated further, an Artemisia -Gramineae tundra developed. Selaginella rupestris and minor herb taxa indicate the presence of poor soils and disturbed ground. This herb tundra was replaced by a short-lived (< 1000 yr) Betula-Alnus shrub tundra followed by the rapid establishment of a Larix dahurica forest with a Betula exilis-ericales-lichen understory. Populus suaveolens and Chosenia may have formed limited hardwood gallery forests at this time. Modern vegetation associations probably developed during the early Holocene with the arrival of Pinus pumila ca. 9000 yr B.P. This shrub became important in the forest understory and, with B. exilis, formed a belt of shrub tundra beyond altitudinal treeline. Comparison of the Upper Kolyma and Alaskan pollen records indicates that important differences in vegetation types and timing of vegetation change occurred across Beringia during the late Quaternary.
The aims of the study were to determine the prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors and establish the proportion of people with psychosis meeting criteria for the metabolic syndrome (MetS). The study also aimed to identify the key lifestyle behaviours associated with increased risk of the MetS and to investigate whether the MetS is associated with illness severity and degree of functional impairment.
Baseline data were collected as part of a large randomized controlled trial (IMPaCT RCT). The study took place within community mental health teams in five Mental Health NHS Trusts in urban and rural locations across England. A total of 450 randomly selected out-patients, aged 18–65 years, with an established psychotic illness were recruited. We ascertained the prevalence rates of cardiometabolic risk factors, illness severity and functional impairment and calculated rates of the MetS, using International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and National Cholesterol Education Program Third Adult Treatment Panel criteria.
High rates of cardiometabolic risk factors were found. Nearly all women and most men had waist circumference exceeding the IDF threshold for central obesity. Half the sample was obese (body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2) and a fifth met the criteria for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Females were more likely to be obese than males (61% v. 42%, p < 0.001). Of the 308 patients with complete laboratory measures, 57% (n = 175) met the IDF criteria for the MetS.
In the UK, the prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors in individuals with psychotic illnesses is much higher than that observed in national general population studies as well as in most international studies of patients with psychosis.
In the lead-up to the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) project, several next-generation radio telescopes and upgrades are already being built around the world. These include APERTIF (The Netherlands), ASKAP (Australia), e-MERLIN (UK), VLA (USA), e-EVN (based in Europe), LOFAR (The Netherlands), MeerKAT (South Africa), and the Murchison Widefield Array. Each of these new instruments has different strengths, and coordination of surveys between them can help maximise the science from each of them. A radio continuum survey is being planned on each of them with the primary science objective of understanding the formation and evolution of galaxies over cosmic time, and the cosmological parameters and large-scale structures which drive it. In pursuit of this objective, the different teams are developing a variety of new techniques, and refining existing ones. To achieve these exciting scientific goals, many technical challenges must be addressed by the survey instruments. Given the limited resources of the global radio-astronomical community, it is essential that we pool our skills and knowledge. We do not have sufficient resources to enjoy the luxury of re-inventing wheels. We face significant challenges in calibration, imaging, source extraction and measurement, classification and cross-identification, redshift determination, stacking, and data-intensive research. As these instruments extend the observational parameters, we will face further unexpected challenges in calibration, imaging, and interpretation. If we are to realise the full scientific potential of these expensive instruments, it is essential that we devote enough resources and careful study to understanding the instrumental effects and how they will affect the data. We have established an SKA Radio Continuum Survey working group, whose prime role is to maximise science from these instruments by ensuring we share resources and expertise across the projects. Here we describe these projects, their science goals, and the technical challenges which are being addressed to maximise the science return.
Baldwin Peninsula, northwest Alaska, is a middle Pleistocene push-moraine complex composed of marine, fluvial, and glaciogenic sediments. The peninsula was formed by three ice lobes emanating from the De Long and Baird mountains and the Selawik Lowlands in the southwest Brooks Range during the Anaktuvuk River glaciation. This glaciation was nearly an order of magnitude more areally extensive than late Pleistocene glaciations in the same region and occurred c. 500 to 600 ka B.P. based on paleomagnetism, and amino-stratigraphic and morphostratigraphic correlations with other numerically-dated northwest Alaskan deposits.
Extensive deposits of massive and laminated clayey silt with striated, faceted stones indicate that local sea level was high as glacial ice reached its maximum extent. Glacio-isostasy does not seem to have been important in maintaining a high relative sea level; therefore we infer that eustatic sea level remained high during ice advance. For this to occur, high latitude glaciation must have preceded the build-up of ice in lower latitudes. The source of moisture for such massive glaciation may have come from submerged Bering and Chukchi shelves, enhanced flow of North Pacific/southern Bering Sea winter storms, reduced intensity of the winter Arctic High, or a combination thereof.
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