The genetic and environmental determinants of variation in blood cell size and number were investigated in 392 pairs of 12-year-old twins. The following blood cell indices were measured: haemoglobin, red blood cell count, haematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, platelet number, total white cell count, level of neutrophils, monocytes, eosinophils, total lymphocytes, CD3+ lymphocytes, CD4+ lymphocytes, CD8+ lymphocytes, CD19+ lymphocytes, CD56+ lymphocytes and CD4+ /CD8+ ratio. Genetic factors contributed significantly to all blood cell measures accounting for between 61 and 96% of variance. Heritability estimates did not differ significantly between males and females, although the sample size of the present study was not large enough to exclude the possibility of sex-limited gene expression. Common environmental factors were important in determining red blood cell count and haematocrit, but were not important in determining basal levels of any white blood cell type.