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This is a comprehensive long-run history of economic and political change in the Iberian Peninsula. Beginning with the development of the old medieval kingdoms, it goes on to explore two countries, Portugal and Spain, which during the early modern period possessed vast empires and played an essential role in the global economic and political developments. It traces how and why both countries began to fall behind during the first stages of industrialization and modern economic growth only to achieve remarkable economic development during the second half of the twentieth century. Written by a team of leading historians, the book sheds new light on all aspects of economic history from population, agriculture, manufacturing and international trade to government, finance and welfare. The book includes extensive new data and will be an essential work of reference for scholars of Portugal and Spain and also of comparative European economic development.
Transdisciplinary research knits together knowledge from diverse epistemic communities in addressing social-environmental challenges, such as biodiversity loss, climate crises, food insecurity, and public health. This paper reflects on the roles of philosophy of science in transdisciplinary research while focusing on Indigenous and other subjugated forms of knowledge. We offer a critical assessment of demarcationist approaches in philosophy of science and outline a constructive alternative of transdisciplinary philosophy of science. While a focus on demarcation obscures the complex relations between epistemic communities, transdisciplinary philosophy of science provides resources for meeting epistemic and political challenges of collaborative knowledge production.
The Amazon River dolphin Inia geoffrensis occurs throughout the basins of the Amazon and Orinoco Rivers and is categorized as Endangered on the IUCN Red List. Using satellite tracking data from eight dolphins (one female and seven males) in the Peruvian Amazon, we demonstrate that these dolphins inhabit a variety of habitat types and have core areas and home range areas of variable magnitudes. To gain a better understanding of how threats affect these dolphins, we examined the distance of dolphin records to locations of current and potential future anthropogenic threats. On average, dolphin home ranges overlapped with fisheries by 89%. Dolphins were found at an average distance of 252 km from the nearest proposed dam and 125 km from the nearest proposed dredging site. Given that many of these threats are still in the planning stage, we advise the government to consider the negative effects these activities have already had on other riverine species before proceeding. Additionally, efforts should be made to expand river dolphin tracking programmes to span multiple seasons, to track more females at our study sites and to increase the numbers tracked overall in other areas to improve our knowledge of the species' movement patterns.
Image-processing pipelines require the design of complex workflows combining many different steps that bring the raw acquired data to a final result with biological meaning. In the image-processing domain of cryo-electron microscopy single-particle analysis (cryo-EM SPA), hundreds of steps must be performed to obtain the three-dimensional structure of a biological macromolecule by integrating data spread over thousands of micrographs containing millions of copies of allegedly the same macromolecule. The execution of such complicated workflows demands a specific tool to keep track of all these steps performed. Additionally, due to the extremely low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), the estimation of any image parameter is heavily affected by noise resulting in a significant fraction of incorrect estimates. Although low SNR and processing millions of images by hundreds of sequential steps requiring substantial computational resources are specific to cryo-EM, these characteristics may be shared by other biological imaging domains. Here, we present Scipion, a Python generic open-source workflow engine specifically adapted for image processing. Its main characteristics are: (a) interoperability, (b) smart object model, (c) gluing operations, (d) comparison operations, (e) wide set of domain-specific operations, (f) execution in streaming, (g) smooth integration in high-performance computing environments, (h) execution with and without graphical capabilities, (i) flexible visualization, (j) user authentication and private access to private data, (k) scripting capabilities, (l) high performance, (m) traceability, (n) reproducibility, (o) self-reporting, (p) reusability, (q) extensibility, (r) software updates, and (s) non-restrictive software licensing.
Objectives: The dissemination of Escherichia coli–producing extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL-Ec) is evident in the community. In this population-based spatial analysis, we sought to describe the distribution of ESBL-Ec and to identify predictors of incidence in the community. Methods: The study population was defined as individuals with the ESBL-Ec isolate in Queensland, Australia, from 2010 to 2019. Annual choropleth maps and a global Moran index were constructed to describe ESBL-Ec distribution. Getis-Ord Gi* was performed to identify “hot spots” of statistical significance. Using demographic factors and incidence per postal area from 2016, multivariable analyses with or without spatially structured random effects were performed. Results: In total, 12,786 individuals with ESBL-Ec isolate were identified. The incidence rate increased annually from 9.1 per 100,000 residents in 2010 to 49.8 per 100,000 residents in 2019. The geographical distribution changed from random to clustered in 2014. Hot spots were more frequently identified in the Outback and Far North Queensland, where remote communities and hotter weather are prevalent. Multivariable spatial analysis suggests that communities with higher socioeconomic status (RR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.55–0.79 per 100 units) and employment in the agricultural industry (RR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.67–0.95 per 10%) were protective of lower ESBL-Ec incidence. After accounting for multiple demographic factors, the residual, structured, random-effects model indicated that hot spots were still detected in more remote communities but also in several city regions. Conclusions: The change in distribution of ESBL-Ec across Queensland suggests the presence of area-level specific risk factors that enhance spread in the community. Risk factors for spread appear different between remote and city settings, and future research should be tailored to understand the respective area-level risk factors. Factors such as local temperature, antibiotic consumption, and access to services should be validated. Future public health measures to reduce transmission should be focused on the identified hot spots.
This study uses luminescence and 14C accelerator mass spectrometry procedures to date relevant glaciofluvial and glacial deposits from the south-central and southeastern Pyrenees (Andorra–France–Spain). We distinguish two types of end-moraine complexes: (1) those in which at least a far-flung moraine exists beyond a frequently nested end-moraine complex (the most common) and (2) those in which a close-nested end moraine encompasses at least two glacial cycles. Both types formed within six distinctive glacial intervals: (1) A penultimate glacial cycle during Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage (MIS) 6 and older glaciofluvial terraces occurred beyond the range of the luminescence dating method. (2) An early glacial advance in MIS 5d (~97 −15/+19 ka) was followed by glacial retreat during MIS 5c (< 91 ± 9 ka). (3) The last maximum ice extent (LMIE) was in early MIS 4 (~74 ± 4.5 ka). (4) Unexpectedly, glaciers thinned during the second half of MIS 3 (~39 −6/+11 ka). (5) During the MIS 3–2 transition, glaciers subsequently fluctuated behind the LMIE limits. (6) The global last glacial maximum (LGM) started as early as ~26.6 ± 0.365 ka b2k, and the corresponding end moraines were built behind the LMIE limits or merged with it, forming close-nested moraines.
Five studies demonstrated that people selectively use general moral principles to rationalize preferred moral conclusions. In Studies 1a and 1b, college students and community respondents were presented with variations on a traditional moral scenario that asked whether it was permissible to sacrifice one innocent man in order to save a greater number of people. Political liberals, but not relatively more conservative participants, were more likely to endorse consequentialism when the victim had a stereotypically White American name than when the victim had a stereotypically Black American name. Study 2 found evidence suggesting participants believe that the moral principles they are endorsing are general in nature: when presented sequentially with both versions of the scenario, liberals again showed a bias in their judgments to the initial scenario, but demonstrated consistency thereafter. Study 3 found conservatives were more likely to endorse the unintended killing of innocent civilians when Iraqis civilians were killed than when Americans civilians were killed, while liberals showed no significant effect. In Study 4, participants primed with patriotism were more likely to endorse consequentialism when Iraqi civilians were killed by American forces than were participants primed with multiculturalism. However, this was not the case when American civilians were killed by Iraqi forces. Implications for the role of reason in moral judgment are discussed.
The Andes offers a particularly effective focus for an archaeology of mobility because their extreme topography compresses enormous vertical resource diversity across short horizontal distances. In this article, the authors combine findings from two large-scale archaeological studies of adjacent watersheds—the Nasca-Palpa Project and One River Project—to provide the necessary context in which to explore changing mobilities from the Archaic Period to the Inca Empire, and from the Pacific coast to the high Andes. Analyses of obsidian lithics and stable isotopes in human hair are used to argue that changing patterns of mobility offer a new way of defining the ‘Horizons’ that have long dominated concepts of periodisation here.
In this chapter I engage in a comparative analysis of discourses of shame and identity in the Cuban and US slave systems, which were interrelated economically yet differed in terms of public discussions of race and affect (Chambers 24). Without conflating these systems or overstating their differences, I hope to understand the relationships connecting discussions of race, affect, practices of rule, and slaveholder paternalism – the notion of reciprocal duties that allegedly bound slaveholders and slaves together – in legal, literary, and political discourse (Genovese 5).
Helminth species of Neotropical bats are poorly known. In Mexico, few studies have been conducted on helminths of bats, especially in regions such as the Yucatan Peninsula where Chiroptera is the mammalian order with the greatest number of species. In this study, we characterized morphologically and molecularly the helminth species of bats and explored their infection levels and parasite–host interactions in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. One hundred and sixty-three bats (representing 21 species) were captured between 2017 and 2022 in 15 sites throughout the Yucatan Peninsula. Conventional morphological techniques and molecular tools were used with the 28S gene to identify the collected helminths. Host–parasite network analyses were carried out to explore interactions by focusing on the level of host species. Helminths were found in 44 (26.9%) bats of 12 species. Twenty helminth taxa were recorded (7 trematodes, 3 cestodes and 10 nematodes), including 4 new host records for the Americas. Prevalence and mean intensity of infection values ranged from 7.1 to 100% and from 1 to 56, respectively. Molecular analyses confirmed the identity of some helminths at species and genus levels; however, some sequences did not correspond to any of the species available on GenBank. The parasite–host network suggests that most of the helminths recorded in bats were host-specific. The highest helminth richness was found in insectivorous bats. This study increases our knowledge of helminths parasitizing Neotropical bats, adding new records and nucleotide sequences.
The dissemination of Escherichia coli producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL-Ec) is evident in the community. A population-based spatial analysis is necessary to investigate community risk factors for ESBL-Ec occurrence. The study population was defined as individuals with ESBL-Ec isolated in Queensland, Australia, from 2010 to 2019. Choropleth maps, global Moran's index and Getis-Ord Gi* were used to describe ESBL-Ec distribution and identify hot spots. Multivariable Poisson regression models with or without spatially structured random effects were performed. A total of 12 786 individuals with ESBL-Ec isolate were identified. The crude incidence rate increased annually from 9.1 per 100 000 residents in 2010 to 49.8 per 100 000 residents in 2019. The geographical distribution of ESBL-Ec changed from random to clustered after 2014, suggesting presence of community-specific factors that can enhance occurrence. Hot spots were more frequently identified in Outback and Far North Queensland, future public health measures to reduce transmission should prioritise these communities. Communities with higher socioeconomic status (RR = 0.66, 95% CI 0.55–0.79, per 100 units increase) and higher proportion of residents employed in the agricultural industry (RR = 0.79, 95% CI 0.67–0.95, per 10% increase) had lower ESBL-Ec incidence. Risk factors for occurrence appear differential between remote and city settings and this should be further investigated.
Lung cancer (LC) patients have shown a predisposition for developing emotional and physical symptoms, with detrimental effects on the quality of life (QoL). This study evaluates the bidirectional relationship between main psychological disorders and clinical/sociodemographic factors with the QoL.
In this observational cross-sectional study, patients with a confirmed LC diagnosis from February 2015 to March 2018 were eligible for this study. Each participant completed screening instruments of anxiety, depression, distress, and QoL assessment. Other relevant clinical data were extracted from electronic health records. Then comparisons, correlations, and logistic regression analyses were performed.
Two hundred and four cases were eligible; of them, the median age was 61 (24–84) years, most had clinical stage IV (95%), and most were under first-line therapy (53%). Concerning psychological status, 46% had symptoms of emotional distress, 35% anxiety, and 31% depression. Patients with psychological disorders experienced a worse global QoL than those without psychological impairment (p < 0.001). Increased financial issues and physical symptoms, combined with lower functioning, were also significantly associated with anxiety, depression, and distress. In the multivariate analysis, female sex and emotional distress were positively associated with an increased risk of depression; likewise, female sex, low social functioning, insomnia, and emotional distress were associated with anxiety.
Emotional symptoms and QoL had a significant bidirectional effect on this study; this underscores the necessity to identify and treat anxiety, depression, and distress to improve psychological well-being and the QoL in LC patients.
This study aimed to assess the impact of the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine 13 (PCV13) on the molecular epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in children from Andalusia. A population-based prospective surveillance study was conducted on IPD in children aged <14 years from Andalusia (2018–2020). Pneumococcal invasive isolates collected between 2006 and 2009 in the two largest tertiary hospitals in Andalusia were used as pre-PCV13 controls for comparison of serotype/genotype distribution. Overall IPD incidence rate was 3.55 cases per 100 000 in 2018; increased non-significantly to 4.20 cases per 100 000 in 2019 and declined in 2020 to 1.69 cases per 100 000 (incidence rate ratio 2020 vs. 2019: 0.40, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.20–0.89, P = 0.01). Proportion of IPD cases due to PCV13 serotypes in 2018–2020 was 28% (P = 0.0001 for comparison with 2006–2009). Serotypes 24F (15%) and 11A (8.3%) were the most frequently identified non-PCV13 serotypes (NVT) in 2018–2020. Penicillin- and/or ampicillin-resistant clones mostly belonged to clonal complex 156 (serotype 14-ST156 and ST2944 and serotype 11A-ST6521). The proportion of IPD cases caused by PCV13 serotypes declined significantly after the initiation of the PCV13 vaccination programme in 2016. Certain NVT, such as serotypes 24F and 11A, warrant future monitoring in IPD owing to invasive potential and/or antibiotic resistance rates.
The scientific study of Neolithic monuments holds fundamental keys to the analysis of early social complexity. This is often impeded by the challenges involved in understanding their temporality and, particularly, their initial construction dates. This problem is most severe in monuments that were not predominantly used for burial and went on to have long biographies in which activity in later periods obliterated the material record of the earliest phases. That was certainly the case of the Menga dolmen, part of the Antequera World Heritage site (Málaga, Spain), and one of the most remarkable megaliths in Europe, for which, after nearly 200 years of explorations and research, no firm chronology existed. The research presented in this paper shows how this problem was tackled through a multimethod, scientific, and geoarchaeological approach. The analysis of 29 fresh numerical ages, including radiocarbon determinations as well as optically stimulated luminescence, thermoluminescence, and uranium-thorium dates, led to the successful establishment of Menga's construction date and the subsequent contextualization of the monument within the social and cultural background it arose in. Placing the dolmen in the context of its time of “birth” introduces entirely new possibilities for its interpretation, both in terms of local and supralocal social and cultural processes.
Humans have engineered their environments throughout the Holocene, especially in the construction of hydraulic infrastructure. In many regions, however, this infrastructure is difficult to date, including the vestiges of water-management systems in the Andean highlands. Focusing on silt reservoirs in the upper Ica drainage, Peru, the authors use cores and radiocarbon dates to demonstrate the pre-Hispanic construction of walls to enhance and expand wetlands for camelid pasture. Interventions dated to the Inca period (AD 1400–1532) indicate an intensification of investment in hydraulic infrastructure to expand production capacity in support of the state. The results are discussed in the context of the hydraulic strategies of other states and empires.
New palynological results from the Gafo Formation (southern sector of the Pulo do Lobo Domain, South Portuguese Zone) are integrated with recently studied sections and drillholes from the Portuguese and Spanish sectors. A total of 44 samples were studied, 27 of which were positive for palynomorph taxonomy. This research revealed well preserved palynological assemblages, including 73 spore species allocated to 28 genera, four acritarch genera, three prasinophyte algae genera plus common chitinozoan remains. Some additional forms were retained under open nomenclature. From this, the first complete age determination for the Gafo Formation in Portugal and Spain was achieved, indicating a middle Famennian (Grandispora gracilis–Grandispora famenensis, GF Biozone) to a late Famennian (Grandispora echinata, VH Biozone) age. A greywacke sample from the same Gafo Formation was dated by U–Pb zircon geochronology and a maximum depositional age of 369 ± 2.5 Ma was obtained. A correlation between these palynological and U–Pb zircon data and the palynoflora assemblages of previous authors was made, as well as with the ages of felsic volcanic rocks found intercalated in the Gafo Formation, confirming the complex stratigraphy of Pulo do Lobo Domain. The results are consistent with stratigraphic mapping and structural interpretations, allowing a middle–late Famennian age (GF and VH Biozone) to be assigned to the Gafo Formation sedimentary rocks. This work has also contributed to a reinterpretation of Gafo Formation depositional facies correlatives (e.g. the Santa Barbara Group in Spain) as being the same lithological unit.
Identification of treatment-specific predictors of drug therapies for bipolar disorder (BD) is important because only about half of individuals respond to any specific medication. However, medication response in pediatric BD is variable and not well predicted by clinical characteristics.
A total of 121 youth with early course BD (acute manic/mixed episode) were prospectively recruited and randomized to 6 weeks of double-blind treatment with quetiapine (n = 71) or lithium (n = 50). Participants completed structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at baseline before treatment and 1 week after treatment initiation, and brain morphometric features were extracted for each individual based on MRI scans. Positive antimanic treatment response at week 6 was defined as an over 50% reduction of Young Mania Rating Scale scores from baseline. Two-stage deep learning prediction model was established to distinguish responders and non-responders based on different feature sets.
Pre-treatment morphometry and morphometric changes occurring during the first week can both independently predict treatment outcome of quetiapine and lithium with balanced accuracy over 75% (all p < 0.05). Combining brain morphometry at baseline and week 1 allows prediction with the highest balanced accuracy (quetiapine: 83.2% and lithium: 83.5%). Predictions in the quetiapine and lithium group were found to be driven by different morphometric patterns.
These findings demonstrate that pre-treatment morphometric measures and acute brain morphometric changes can serve as medication response predictors in pediatric BD. Brain morphometric features may provide promising biomarkers for developing biologically-informed treatment outcome prediction and patient stratification tools for BD treatment development.
Prevention of violent behaviors (VB) in the early phase of psychosis (EPP) is a real challenge. Impulsivity was shown to be strongly related to VB, and different evolutions of impulsivity were noticed along treatments. One possible variable involved in the relationship between VB and the evolution of impulsivity is cannabis use (CU). The high prevalence of CU in EPP and its relationship with VB led us to investigate: 1/the impact of CU and 2/the impact of early CU on the evolution of impulsivity levels during a 3-year program, in violent and non-violent EPP patients.
178 non-violent and 62 violent patients (VPs) were followed-up over a 3 year period. Age of onset of CU was assessed at program entry and impulsivity was assessed seven times during the program. The evolution of impulsivity level during the program, as a function of the violent and non-violent groups of patients and CU precocity were analyzed with linear mixed-effects models.
Over the treatment period, impulsivity level did not evolve as a function of the interaction between group and CU (coef. = 0.02, p = 0.425). However, when including precocity of CU, impulsivity was shown to increase significantly only in VPs who start consuming before 15 years of age (coef. = 0.06, p = 0.008).
The precocity of CU in VPs seems to be a key variable of the negative evolution of impulsivity during follow-up and should be closely monitored in EPP patients entering care since they have a higher risk of showing VB.
The digital twin concept has developed as a method for extracting value from data, and is being developed as a new technique for the design and asset management of high-value engineering systems such as aircraft, energy generating plant, and wind turbines. In terms of implementation, many proprietary digital twin software solutions have been marketed in this domain. In contrast, this paper describes a recently released open-source software framework for digital twins, which provides a browser-based operational platform using Python and Flask. The new platform is intended to maximize connectivity between users and data obtained from the physical twin. This paper describes how this type of digital twin operational platform (DTOP) can be used to connect the physical twin and other Internet-of-Things devices to both users and cloud computing services. The current release of the software—DTOP-Cristallo—uses the example of a three-storey structure as the engineering asset to be managed. Within DTOP-Cristallo, specific engineering software tools have been developed for use in the digital twin, and these are used to demonstrate the concept. At this stage, the framework presented is a prototype. However, the potential for open-source digital twin software using network connectivity is a very large area for future research and development.