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To determine the costs and savings of a 15-component infection control program that reduced transmission of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in an endemic setting.
Evaluation of costs and savings, using historical control data.
Adult oncology unit of a 650-bed hospital.
Patients with leukemia, lymphoma, and solid tumors, excluding bone marrow transplant recipients.
Costs and savings with estimated ranges were calculated. Excess length of stay (LOS) associated with VRE bloodstream infection (BSI) was determined by matching VRE BSI patients with VRE-negative patients by oncology diagnosis. Differences in LOS between the matched groups were evaluated using a mixed-effect analysis of variance linear-regression model.
The cost of enhanced infection control strategies for 1 year was $116,515. VRE BSI was associated with an increased LOS of 13.7 days. The savings associated with fewer VRE BSI ($123,081), fewer patients with VRE colonization ($2,755), and reductions in antimicrobial use ($179,997) totaled $305,833. Estimated ranges of costs and savings for enhanced infection control strategies were $97,939 to $148,883 for costs and $271,531 to $421,461 for savings.
The net savings due to enhanced infection control strategies for 1 year was $189,318. Estimates suggest that these strategies would be cost-beneficial for hospital units where the number of patients with VRE BSI is at least see to nine patients per year or if the savings from fewer VRE BSI patients in combination with decreased antimicrobial use equalled $100,000 to $150,000 per year.
To assess possible transmission modes of, and risk factors for, gastroenteritis associated with Norwalk-like viruses (NLVs) in a geriatric long-term-care facility.
During a prolonged outbreak of acute gastroenteritis, epidemiological data on illness among residents and employees were collected in conjunction with stool, vomitus, and environmental specimens for viral testing. NLVs were identified by electron microscopy in stool and vomitus specimens, and further characterized by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and nucleotide sequencing. Potential risk factors were examined through medical-record review, personal interview, and a self-administered questionnaire sent to all employees.
During the outbreak period, 52 (57%) of 91 residents and 34 (35%) of 90 employees developed acute gastroenteritis. Four case-residents were hospitalized; three residents died at the facility shortly after onset of illness. A point source was not identified; no association between food or water consumption and gastroenteritis was identified. A single NLV strain genetically related to Toronto virus was the only pathogen identified. Residents were at significantly higher risk of gastroenteritis if they were physically debilitated (relative risk [RR], 3.5; 95% confidence interval [CI95], 1.0-12.9), as were employees exposed to residents with acute gastroenteritis (RR, 2.6; CI95, 1.1-6.5) or ill household members (RR, 2.3; CI95, 1.4-3.6). Adherence to infection control measures among the nursing staff may have reduced the risk of gastroenteritis, but the reduction did not reach statistical significance.
In the absence of evidence for food-borne or waterborne transmission, NLVs likely spread among residents and employees of a long-term-care facility through person-to-person or airborne droplet transmission. Rapid notification of local health officials, collection of clinical specimens, and institution of infection control measures are necessary if viral gastroenteritis transmission is to be limited in institutional settings
To detect respiratory adverse reac¬tions potentially related to receipt of peripheral parenteral nutrition (PPN) in hospitalized patients and to determine risk factors for their occurrence.
Retrospective cohort study.
Federal tertiary-care hospital.
Medical and pharmacy records of all patients who received PPN from October 1992 to February 1994 were abstracted for demographics, diagnoses, medications received, indications for and formulation of PPN, and severity of illness as measured by Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores.
A case-patient was defined as any patient who, while receiving PPN, had unexplained chest pain, dyspnea, cardiopulmonary arrest, or new interstitial infiltrates on chest radiograph. Patients who received PPN in which FreAmine was the amino acid source were more likely than those who received PPN made with Travasol to meet the case definition (5/11 vs 0/39; relative risk, >18; 95% confidence interval, 3.3->136; P<.001).
A change in the amino acid source of a PPN admixture was associated with respiratory adverse events that ranged from interstitial infiltrates to sudden death. These events apparently resulted from the infusion of a calcium phosphate precipitate in an opaque admixture. Each new PPN admixture should be tested for stability before clinical use and infused into patients through an appropriate filter.
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