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Hospital construction and renovation activities are the main cause of healthcare-associated fungal outbreaks. Infection control risk assessments (ICRAs) for renovation and construction decrease the risk of healthcare-associated fungal outbreaks, but they are typically not performed in developing countries. We reviewed an outbreak investigation to limit the construction-related fungal infections in a COVID-19 ICU in a resource-limited setting.
This chapter examines the FDA’s role in regulating ART devices. The FDA’s statutorily defined purview to regulate devices includes [things] “used in” or “intended to affect…man or other animals.” This chapter considers the FDA’s jurisdiction over devices that affect or diagnose pre-embryos, embryos, or fetuses that are not generally considered people or animals under US law. It discusses the legal and ethical implications of the FDA’s claim over ART devices without changing or clarifying its regulatory charge to include such organisms and whether or not the FDA has overstepped its power by regulating these instruments as devices. It also reviews the FDA’s existing classification of devices involved in ART (Class II). In light of the catastrophic and painful consequences that can follow malfunction of these devices (such as cryobanks thawing or embryo swapping) and that anecdotal accounts suggest such malfunctions are happening more frequently, this chapter questions if ART devices should be reclassified or if an alternative regulatory mechanism could more effectively protect consumers in the ART industry.
The surface environment in COVID-19 patient’s rooms may be persistently contaminated despite disinfection. A continuously active disinfectant demonstrated excellent sustained antiviral activity following a 48-hour period of wear and abrasion exposures with reinoculations. Reductions of >4-log10 were achieved within a 1-minute contact time for SARS-CoV-2 and the human coronavirus, 229E.
Initial assessments of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) preparedness revealed resource shortages and variations in infection prevention policies across US hospitals. Our follow-up survey revealed improvement in resource availability, increase in testing capacity, and uniformity in infection prevention policies. Most importantly, the survey highlighted an increase in staffing shortages and use of travel nursing.
Hospital-associated fungal infections from construction and renovation activities can be mitigated using an infection control risk assessment (ICRA) and implementation of infection prevention measures. The effectiveness of these measures depends on proper installation and maintenance. Consistent infection prevention construction rounding with feedback is key to ongoing compliance.
This consensus statement by the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA) and the Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine (AMDA), the Association for Professionals in Epidemiology and Infection Control (APIC), the HIV Medicine Association (HIVMA), the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society (PIDS), and the Society of Infectious Diseases Pharmacists (SIDP) recommends that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination should be a condition of employment for all healthcare personnel in facilities in the United States. Exemptions from this policy apply to those with medical contraindications to all COVID-19 vaccines available in the United States and other exemptions as specified by federal or state law. The consensus statement also supports COVID-19 vaccination of nonemployees functioning at a healthcare facility (eg, students, contract workers, volunteers, etc).
Limited data are available on the implementation of an area under the concentration-time curve (AUC)–based dosing protocol with multidisciplinary team (MT) support to improve adherence with vancomycin dosing protocol.
To evaluate the effectiveness of an AUC-based dosing protocol with MT support intervention with adherence to a hospital-wide vancomycin dosing protocol at Thammasat University Hospital.
We conducted a quasi-experimental study in patients who were prescribed intravenous vancomycin. The study was divided into 2 periods; (1) the preintervention period when the vancomycin dosing protocol was already applied in routine practice and (2) the post-intervention period when the implementation of an AUC-based dosing protocol with MT support was added to the existing vancomycin dosing protocol. The primary outcome was the rate of adherence, and the secondary outcomes included acute kidney injury events, vancomycin-related adverse events, and 30-day mortality rate.
In total, 240 patients were enrolled. The most common infections were skin and soft-tissue infections (24.6%) and bacteremia (24.6%). The most common pathogens were coagulase-negative staphylococci (19.6%) and Enterococcus spp (15.4%). Adherence with the vancomycin dosing protocol was significantly higher in the postintervention period (90.8% vs 55%; P ≤ .001). By multivariate analysis, an AUC-based dosing protocol with MT support was the sole predictor for adherence with the vancomycin dosing protocol (adjusted odds ratio, 10.31; 95% confidence interval, 4.54–23.45; P ≤ .001). The 30-day mortality rate was significantly lower during the postintervention period (8.3% vs 20%; P = .015).
AUC-based dosing protocol with MT support significantly improved adherence with vancomycin dosing protocol and was associated with a lower 30-day mortality rate.
To determine the impact of a documented penicillin or cephalosporin allergy on the development of surgical site infections (SSIs).
Appropriate preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis reduces SSI risk, but documented antibiotic allergies influence the choice of prophylactic agents. Few studies have examined the relationship between a reported antibiotic allergy and risk of SSI and to what extent this relationship is modified by the antibiotic class given for prophylaxis.
We conducted a retrospective cohort study of adult patients undergoing coronary artery bypass, craniotomy, spinal fusion, laminectomy, hip arthroplasty and knee arthroplasty at 3 hospitals from July 1, 2013, to December 31, 2017. We built a multivariable logistic regression model to calculate the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of developing an SSI among patients with and without patient-reported penicillin or cephalosporin allergies. We also examined effect measure modification (EMM) to determine whether surgical prophylaxis affected the association between reported allergy and SSI.
We analyzed 39,972 procedures; 1,689 (4.2%) with a documented patient penicillin or cephalosporin allergy, and 374 (0.9%) resulted in an SSI. Patients with a reported penicillin or cephalosporin allergy were more likely to develop an SSI compared to patients who did not report an allergy to penicillin or cephalosporins (adjusted odds ratio, 3.26; 95% confidence interval, 2.71–3.93). Surgical prophylaxis did not have significant EMM on this association.
Patients who reported a penicillin or cephalosporin allergy had higher odds of developing an SSI than nonallergic patients. However, the increase in odds is not completely mediated by the type of surgical prophylaxis. Instead, a reported allergy may be a surrogate marker for a more complicated patient population.