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Emotional functioning is linked to HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment, yet research on this association among diverse people with HIV (PWH) is scant. We examined emotional health and its association with neurocognition in Hispanic and White PWH.
Participants included 107 Hispanic (41% primarily Spanish-speakers; 80% Mexican heritage/origin) and 216 White PWH (Overall age: M = 53.62, SD = 12.19; 86% male; 63% AIDS; 92% on antiretroviral therapy). Emotional health was assessed via the National Institute of Health Toolbox (NIHTB)-Emotion Battery, which yields T-scores for three factor-based summary scores (negative affect, social satisfaction, and psychological well-being) and 13 individual component scales. Neurocognition was measured via demographically adjusted fluid cognition T-scores from the NIHTB-cognition battery.
27%–39% of the sample had problematic socioemotional summary scores. Hispanic PWH showed less loneliness, better social satisfaction, higher meaning and purpose, and better psychological well-being than Whites (ps <.05). Within Hispanics, Spanish-speakers showed better meaning and purpose, higher psychological well-being summary score, less anger hostility, but greater fear affect than English speakers. Only in Whites, worse negative affect (fear affect, perceived stress, and sadness) was associated with worse neurocognition (p <.05); and in both groups, worse social satisfaction (emotional support, friendship, and perceived rejection) was linked with worse neurocognition (p <.05).
Adverse emotional health is common among PWH, with subgroups of Hispanics showing relative strengths in some domains. Aspects of emotional health differentially relate to neurocogntition among PWH and cross-culturally. Understanding these varying associations is an important step towards the development of culturally relevant interventions that promote neurocognitive health among Hispanic PWH.
Field studies were conducted to assess the efficacy of physical weed management of Palmer amaranth management in cucumber, peanut, and sweetpotato. Treatments were arranged in a 3 × 4 factorial in which the first factor included a treatment method of electrical, mechanical, or hand-roguing Palmer amaranth control and the second factor consisted of treatments applied when Palmer amaranth was approximately 0.3, 0.6, 0.9, or 1.2 m above the crop canopy. Four wk after treatment (WAT), the electrical applications controlled Palmer amaranth at least 27 percentage points more than the mechanical applications when applied at the 0.3- and 0.6-m timings. At the 0.9- and 1.2-m application timings 4 WAT, electrical and mechanical applications controlled Palmer amaranth by at most 87%. Though hand removal generally resulted in the greatest peanut pod count and total sweetpotato yield, mechanical and electrical control resulted in similar yield to the hand-rogued plots, depending on the treatment timing. With additional research to provide insight into the optimal applications, there is potential for electrical control and mechanical control to be used as alternatives to hand removal. Additional studies were conducted to determine the effects of electrical treatments on Palmer amaranth seed production and viability. Treatments consisted of electricity applied to Palmer amaranth at first visible inflorescence, 2 wk after first visible inflorescence (WAI) or 4 WAI. Treatments at varying reproductive maturities did not reduce the seed production immediately after treatment. However, after treatment, plants primarily died and ceased maturation, reducing seed production assessed at 4 WAI by 93% and 70% when treated at 0 and 2 WAI, respectively. Treatments did not have a negative effect on germination or seedling length.
To determine the reliability of teleneuropsychological (TNP) compared to in-person assessments (IPA) in people with HIV (PWH) and without HIV (HIV−).
Participants included 80 PWH (Mage = 58.7, SDage = 11.0) and 23 HIV− (Mage = 61.9, SDage = 16.7). Participants completed two comprehensive neuropsychological IPA before one TNP during the COVID-19 pandemic (March–December 2020). The neuropsychological tests included: Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (HVLT-R Total and Delayed Recall), Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWAT; FAS-English or PMR-Spanish), Animal Fluency, Action (Verb) Fluency, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale 3rd Edition (WAIS-III) Symbol Search and Letter Number Sequencing, Stroop Color and Word Test, Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (Channel 1), and Boston Naming Test. Total raw scores and sub-scores were used in analyses. In the total sample and by HIV status, test-retest reliability and performance-level differences were evaluated between the two consecutive IPA (i.e., IPA1 and IPA2), and mean in-person scores (IPA-M), and TNP.
There were statistically significant test-retest correlations between IPA1 and IPA2 (r or ρ = .603–.883, ps < .001), and between IPA-M and TNP (r or ρ = .622–.958, ps < .001). In the total sample, significantly lower test-retest scores were found between IPA-M and TNP on the COWAT (PMR), Stroop Color and Word Test, WAIS-III Letter Number Sequencing, and HVLT-R Total Recall (ps < .05). Results were similar in PWH only.
This study demonstrates reliability of TNP in PWH and HIV−. TNP assessments are a promising way to improve access to traditional neuropsychological services and maintain ongoing clinical research studies during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Data from neurocognitive assessments may not be accurate in the context of factors impacting validity, such as disengagement, unmotivated responding, or intentional underperformance. Performance validity tests (PVTs) were developed to address these phenomena and assess underperformance on neurocognitive tests. However, PVTs can be burdensome, rely on cutoff scores that reduce information, do not examine potential variations in task engagement across a battery, and are typically not well-suited to acquisition of large cognitive datasets. Here we describe the development of novel performance validity measures that could address some of these limitations by leveraging psychometric concepts using data embedded within the Penn Computerized Neurocognitive Battery (PennCNB).
We first developed these validity measures using simulations of invalid response patterns with parameters drawn from real data. Next, we examined their application in two large, independent samples: 1) children and adolescents from the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort (n = 9498); and 2) adult servicemembers from the Marine Resiliency Study-II (n = 1444).
Our performance validity metrics detected patterns of invalid responding in simulated data, even at subtle levels. Furthermore, a combination of these metrics significantly predicted previously established validity rules for these tests in both developmental and adult datasets. Moreover, most clinical diagnostic groups did not show reduced validity estimates.
These results provide proof-of-concept evidence for multivariate, data-driven performance validity metrics. These metrics offer a novel method for determining the performance validity for individual neurocognitive tests that is scalable, applicable across different tests, less burdensome, and dimensional. However, more research is needed into their application.
To determine risk factors for mechanical (noninfectious) complications in peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) in children.
Retrospective cohort study.
Pediatric tertiary-care center in Nova Scotia, Canada.
Pediatric patients with a first PICC insertion.
All PICCs inserted between January 2001 until 2016 were included. Age-stratified (neonates vs non-neonates) Fine–Grey competing risk proportional hazard models were used to model the association between each putative risk factor and the time to mechanical complication or removal of the PICC for reasons not related to a mechanical complication. Models were adjusted for confounding variables identified through directed acyclic graphs.
Of 3,205 patients with PICCs, 706 had mechanical complications (22% or 14 events/1000 device days). For both neonates and older children, disease group, lumen count, and prior leak were all associated with mechanical complications in the adjusted proportional hazards model. Access vein and prior infection were also associated with mechanical complications for neonates, and age group was associated with mechanical complications among non-neonates.
We have identified several risk factors for mechanical complications in patients with PICCs that will help improve best practices for PICC insertion and care.
This study aimed to explore the association between hyperglycemia in pregnancy (type 2 diabetes (T2D) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM)) and child developmental risk in Europid and Aboriginal women.
PANDORA is a longitudinal birth cohort recruited from a hyperglycemia in pregnancy register, and from normoglycemic women in antenatal clinics. The Wave 1 substudy included 308 children who completed developmental and behavioral screening between age 18 and 60 months. Developmental risk was assessed using the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) or equivalent modified ASQ for use with Aboriginal children. Emotional and behavioral risk was assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the association between developmental scores and explanatory variables, including maternal T2D in pregnancy or GDM.
After adjustment for ethnicity, maternal and child variables, and socioeconomic measures, maternal hyperglycemia was associated with increased developmental “concern” (defined as score ≥1 SD below mean) in the fine motor (T2D odds ratio (OR) 5.30, 95% CI 1.77–15.80; GDM OR 3.96, 95% CI 1.55–10.11) and problem-solving (T2D OR 2.71, 95% CI 1.05–6.98; GDM OR 2.54, 95% CI 1.17–5.54) domains, as well as increased “risk” (score ≥2 SD below mean) in at least one domain (T2D OR 5.33, 95% CI 1.85–15.39; GDM OR 4.86, 95% CI 1.95–12.10). Higher maternal education was associated with reduced concern in the problem-solving domain (OR 0.27, 95% CI 0.11–0.69) after adjustment for maternal hyperglycemia.
Maternal hyperglycemia is associated with increased developmental concern and may be a potential target for intervention so as to optimize developmental trajectories.
Despite the numerous advantages of central venous catheters (CVCs), they have been associated with a variety of complications. Surveillance for mechanical complications of CVCs is not routine, so the true incidence and impact of this adverse patient outcome remains unclear.
Setting and methods:
Prospectively collected CVC data on mechanical complications were reviewed from a centralized database for all in-hospital patient days at our tertiary-care hospital from January 2001 to June 2016 in patients aged <19 years. Patient demographics, CVC characteristics, and rates of mechanical complications per 1,000 days of catheter use were described.
In total, 8,747 CVCs were placed in 5,743 patients during the study period, which captured 780,448 catheter days. The overall mechanical complication rate was 6.1 per 1,000 catheter days (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.9–6.3). The highest complication rates were in nontunneled lines; this was consistent throughout the 15-year study period. Also, 521 CVCs (∼6%) were removed due to mechanical complications before therapy termination. Catheters with tip location in the superior vena cava or right atrium had the fewest complications.
Mechanical complications of CVCs are a common and significant event in the pediatric population. We propose that CVC-associated mechanical complications become a routinely reported patient safety outcome.
Given the aging population of people with HIV (PWH), along with increasing rates of binge drinking among both PWH and the general older adult population, this study examined the independent and interactive effects of HIV, binge drinking, and age on neurocognition.
Participants were 146 drinkers stratified by HIV and binge drinking status (i.e., ≥4 drinks for women and ≥5 drinks for men within approximately 2 h): HIV+/Binge+ (n = 30), HIV−/Binge+ (n = 23), HIV+/Binge− (n = 55), HIV−/Binge− (n = 38). All participants completed a comprehensive neuropsychological battery measuring demographically-corrected global and domain-specific neurocognitive T scores. ANCOVA models examined independent and interactive effects of HIV and binge drinking on neurocognitive outcomes, adjusting for overall alcohol consumption, lifetime substance use, sex, and age. Subsequent multiple linear regressions examined whether HIV/Binge group moderated the relationship between age and neurocognition.
HIV+/Binge+ participants had worse global neurocognition, processing speed, delayed recall, and working memory than HIV−/Binge− participants (p’s < .05). While there were significant main effects of HIV and binge drinking, their interaction did not predict any of those neurocognitive outcomes (p’s > .05). Significant interactions between age and HIV/Binge group showed that HIV+/Binge+ participants demonstrated steeper negative relationships between age and neurocognitive outcomes of learning, delayed recall, and motor skills compared to HIV−/Binge− participants (p’s < .05).
Results showed adverse additive effects of HIV and binge drinking on neurocognitive functioning, with older adults demonstrating the most vulnerability to these effects. Findings support the need for interventions to reduce binge drinking, especially among older PWH.
The first demonstration of laser action in ruby was made in 1960 by T. H. Maiman of Hughes Research Laboratories, USA. Many laboratories worldwide began the search for lasers using different materials, operating at different wavelengths. In the UK, academia, industry and the central laboratories took up the challenge from the earliest days to develop these systems for a broad range of applications. This historical review looks at the contribution the UK has made to the advancement of the technology, the development of systems and components and their exploitation over the last 60 years.
Questions remain regarding whether genetic influences on early life psychopathology overlap with cognition and show developmental variation.
Using data from 9,421 individuals aged 8–21 from the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort, factors of psychopathology were generated using a bifactor model of item-level data from a psychiatric interview. Five orthogonal factors were generated: anxious-misery (mood and anxiety), externalizing (attention deficit hyperactivity and conduct disorder), fear (phobias), psychosis-spectrum, and a general factor. Genetic analyses were conducted on a subsample of 4,662 individuals of European American ancestry. A genetic relatedness matrix was used to estimate heritability of these factors, and genetic correlations with executive function, episodic memory, complex reasoning, social cognition, motor speed, and general cognitive ability. Gene × Age analyses determined whether genetic influences on these factors show developmental variation.
Externalizing was heritable (h2 = 0.46, p = 1 × 10−6), but not anxious-misery (h2 = 0.09, p = 0.183), fear (h2 = 0.04, p = 0.337), psychosis-spectrum (h2 = 0.00, p = 0.494), or general psychopathology (h2 = 0.21, p = 0.040). Externalizing showed genetic overlap with face memory (ρg = −0.412, p = 0.004), verbal reasoning (ρg = −0.485, p = 0.001), spatial reasoning (ρg = −0.426, p = 0.010), motor speed (ρg = 0.659, p = 1x10−4), verbal knowledge (ρg = −0.314, p = 0.002), and general cognitive ability (g)(ρg = −0.394, p = 0.002). Gene × Age analyses revealed decreasing genetic variance (γg = −0.146, p = 0.004) and increasing environmental variance (γe = 0.059, p = 0.009) on externalizing.
Cognitive impairment may be a useful endophenotype of externalizing psychopathology and, therefore, help elucidate its pathophysiological underpinnings. Decreasing genetic variance suggests that gene discovery efforts may be more fruitful in children than adolescents or young adults.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: The knowledge acquired from my research can inform the development of early diagnostic methods for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: In the era of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), the prevalence of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) remains high but the neural mechanisms are unclear. We examined whether older people with HIV (PWH) with minimal cognitive impairment have reduced functional connectivity in frontostriatal circuits compared to controls. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: 99 PWH (mean age 56.6 years, 75% male, 62% Black, mean duration of HIV-infection 26.2 years ±9.3, 90% viral load <50 copies, 98% on stable cART) and 38 demographically-comparable controls (mean age 54.5 years, 71% male, 58% Black) participated in a cross-sectional study. A 7-domain neuropsychological battery and an Activities of Daily Living index were used to determine HAND diagnoses: 32 PWH met criteria for asymptomatic to mild HAND. Motor skill was assessed using the Grooved Pegboard Test by measuring performance speed. Structural MRI and resting-state functional MRI were collected. Seed-to-voxel analyses were conducted using 4 distinct regions in the striatum as seed regions. We used a voxel threshold of p<0.001 and cluster threshold of p<0.05 (FDR-corrected) after controlling for demographic variables. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Compared to controls, PWH had lower resting state functional connectivity between the default mode region of the striatum (i.e., medial caudate) and bilateral superior frontal gyrus, supplementary motor cortex and paracingulate gyrus (p<0.05; cluster size: 567 voxels). Also, compared to controls, PWH had reduced resting state functional connectivity between the motor division of the striatum (i.e., posterior putamen) and anterior cingulate cortex and left supplementary motor cortex (p<0.05, cluster size: 405 voxels). Performance speed on the Grooved Pegboard motor test negatively correlated with functional connectivity between the motor region of the striatum and supplementary motor frontal regions in all participants (Spearman’s rho=-0.18, p=0.04). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: Our results support the hypothesis that frontostriatal abnormalities are widely present in PWH and might play a key role in HAND development. Our data suggest that dysfunction within the frontostriatal circuits may be involved in motor impairment in PWH, and ongoing inflammation may contribute to motor impairment and frontostriatal injury.
Catheter ablation is a safe and effective therapy for the treatment of supraventricular tachycardia in children. Current improvements in technology have allowed progressive reduction in radiation exposure associated with the procedure. To assess the impact of three-dimensional mapping, we compared acute procedural results collected from the Catheter Ablation with Reduction or Elimination of Fluoroscopy registry to published results from the Prospective Assessment after Pediatric Cardiac Ablation study.
Inclusion and exclusion criteria from the Prospective Assessment after Pediatric Cardiac Ablation study were used as guidelines to select patient data from the Catheter Ablation with Reduction or Elimination of Fluoroscopy registry to compare acute procedural outcomes between cohorts. Outcomes assessed include procedural and fluoroscopy exposure times, success rates of procedure, and complications.
In 786 ablation procedures, targeting 498 accessory pathways and 288 atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia substrates, average procedural time (156.5 versus 206.7 minutes, p < 0.01), and fluoroscopy time (1.2 versus 38.3 minutes, p < 0.01) were significantly shorter in the study group. Success rates for the various substrates were similar except for manifest accessory pathways which had a significantly higher success rate in the study group (96.4% versus 93.0%, p < 0.01). Major complication rates were significantly lower in the study group (0.3% versus 1.6%, p < 0.01).
In a large, multicentre study, three-dimensional systems show favourable improvements in clinical outcomes in children undergoing catheter ablation of supraventricular tachycardia compared to the traditional fluoroscopic approach. Further improvements are anticipated as technology advances.
Ecosystem modeling, a pillar of the systems ecology paradigm (SEP), addresses questions such as, how much carbon and nitrogen are cycled within ecological sites, landscapes, or indeed the earth system? Or how are human activities modifying these flows? Modeling, when coupled with field and laboratory studies, represents the essence of the SEP in that they embody accumulated knowledge and generate hypotheses to test understanding of ecosystem processes and behavior. Initially, ecosystem models were primarily used to improve our understanding about how biophysical aspects of ecosystems operate. However, current ecosystem models are widely used to make accurate predictions about how large-scale phenomena such as climate change and management practices impact ecosystem dynamics and assess potential effects of these changes on economic activity and policy making. In sum, ecosystem models embedded in the SEP remain our best mechanism to integrate diverse types of knowledge regarding how the earth system functions and to make quantitative predictions that can be confronted with observations of reality. Modeling efforts discussed are the Century ecosystem model, DayCent ecosystem model, Grassland Ecosystem Model ELM, food web models, Savanna model, agent-based and coupled systems modeling, and Bayesian modeling.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: The history of immune suppression, especially CD4 nadir, has been shown to be a strong predictor of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). However, the potential mechanism of this association is not well understood. This study examined the relationship between CD4 nadir and brain atrophy. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Fifty-nine people with HIV participated in the cross-sectional study (mean age, 56.5 ± 5.8; age range, 41-69; 15 females; 46 African-Americans). High resolution structural MRI images were obtained using a 3T Siemens scanner. From a comprehensive 7-domain neuropsychological test battery, a global deficit score (GDS) and HAND diagnoses were determined for each participant. The correlation between CD4 nadir (the lowest ever lymphocyte CD4 count) and cortical thickness was investigated using a vertex-wise non-parametric approach with a conservative statistical threshold of p < 0.05 (FWE-corrected). RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Out of the 59 participants, 12 met standard Frascati criteria for asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment (ANI) and two met the criteria for mild neurocognitive disorder (MND). Across all participants, low CD4 nadir was associated with widespread cortical thinning, especially in the frontal and temporal regions. Higher GDS (indicating worse global neurocognitive function) was associated with bilateral frontal cortical thinning, and the association largely persisted in the subset of participants who did not meet HAND criteria. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: These results suggest that the low CD4 nadir may be associated with widespread neural injury in the brain, especially in the frontal and temporal regions. This spatial profile might contribute to the prevalence/phenotypes of HAND in the cART era, such as the frequently observed deficits in the executive domain.
Fungi have co-existed with animals and plants throughout the whole of the evolutionary time since these three groups of higher organisms originally separated from one another. Living together closely for this length of time has given rise to many cooperative ventures. We have already seen how many fungi have combined with plants as partners in mutually beneficial relationships such as mycorrhizas and lichens. In these symbiotic, or mutualistic, associations the partners each gain something from the partnership so that the association is more successful than either organism alone. The organisms concerned (often two but sometimes more) live in such close proximity to each other that their cells may intermingle and may even contribute to the formation of joint tissues, as they do in the lichen thallus, which is one of the most ancient mutualistic associations of all and found in some of the most inhospitable environments.
Wikipedia points out that ‘biodiversity’ is a new portmanteau word made up from ‘biology’ and ‘diversity’ that probably arrived in the English language in 1985. Wikipedia defines ‘biodiversity’ as ‘the variation of taxonomic life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire Earth.
The mysterious world of fungi is once again unearthed in this expansive second edition. This textbook provides readers with an all-embracing view of the kingdom fungi, ranging in scope from ecology and evolution, diversity and taxonomy, cell biology and biochemistry, to genetics and genomics, biotechnology and bioinformatics. Adopting a unique systems biology approach - and using explanatory figures and colour illustrations - the authors emphasise the diverse interactions between fungi and other organisms. They outline how recent advances in molecular techniques and computational biology have fundamentally changed our understanding of fungal biology, and have updated chapters and references throughout the book in light of this. This is a fascinating and accessible guide, which will appeal to a broad readership - from aspiring mycologists at undergraduate and graduate level to those studying related disciplines. Online resources are hosted on a complementary website.