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The title of this essay assumes that “church” was an operative category for those second-century Christian authors whose writings are included in the collection called “the Apostolic Fathers.” Such an assumption is valid, provided that it is accompanied with the caveat that the Greek noun ekklēsia, which is typically rendered with the English word “church,” is but one image among many used to describe communities of Christ-followers in these writings, even as ekklēsia is of particular importance because it is found as a designation for these groups in each of the documents under consideration in this essay. Another necessary qualification is that statements about and reflections on Christ-following ekklēsiai (“churches, assemblies”) in the writings of the Apostolic Fathers are contingent and not systematic. The modern theological discipline of “ecclesiology” tends to frame its considerations of the identity and mission of the church in conversation with Scripture (especially the New Testament) and tradition. Yet the second-century writings known as the Apostolic Fathers were penned before there was a New Testament as such and at a time when Christian tradition was yet in its infancy. Thus, we find in these important nascent witnesses snapshots of early Christ-followers debating and defining the identity, mission, and organization of their groups. In order to manage the disparate available evidence from 1 Clement, 2 Clement, the Letters of Ignatius, the Letter of Polycarp to the Philippians, the Martyrdom of Polycarp, the Didache, the Epistle of Barnabas, the Shepherd of Hermas, and the Epistle to Diognetus, this essay concentrates on three separate but related questions: (1) How is the identity of the church presented? (2) What is the work of the church? (3) What, if anything, is said about the ordering and structures of the church?
Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS) is an umbrella term for all drug and nondrug addictive behaviors, due to a dopamine deficiency, “hypodopaminergia.” There is an opioid-overdose epidemic in the USA, which may result in or worsen RDS. A paradigm shift is needed to combat a system that is not working. This shift involves the recognition of dopamine homeostasis as the ultimate treatment of RDS via precision, genetically guided KB220 variants, called Precision Behavioral Management (PBM). Recognition of RDS as an endophenotype and an umbrella term in the future DSM 6, following the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC), would assist in shifting this paradigm.
Rehabilitation of memory after stroke remains an unmet need. Telehealth delivery may overcome barriers to accessing rehabilitation services.
We conducted a non-randomized intervention trial to investigate feasibility and effectiveness of individual telehealth (internet videoconferencing) and face-to-face delivery methods for a six-week compensatory memory rehabilitation program. Supplementary analyses investigated non-inferiority to an existing group-based intervention, and the role of booster sessions in maintaining functional gains. The primary outcome measure was functional attainment of participants’ goals. Secondary measures included subjective reports of lapses in everyday memory and prospective memory, reported use of internal and external memory strategies, and objective measures of memory functioning.
Forty-six stroke survivors were allocated to telehealth and face-to-face intervention delivery conditions. Feasibility of delivery methods was supported, and participants in both conditions demonstrated treatment-related improvements in goal attainment, and key subjective outcomes of everyday memory, and prospective memory. Gains on these measures were maintained at six-week follow-up. Short-term gains in use of internal strategies were also seen. Non-inferiority to group-based delivery was established only on the primary measure for the telehealth delivery condition. Booster sessions were associated with greater maintenance of gains on subjective measures of everyday memory and prospective memory.
This exploratory study supports the feasibility and potential effectiveness of telehealth options for remote delivery of compensatory memory skills training after a stroke. These results are also encouraging of a role for booster sessions in prolonging functional gains over time.
In 1 Cor 11.17–34, Paul attempts to correct the practice of a communal meal in Corinth. He notes that consumption of this meal without discernment of ‘the body’ has had disastrous consequences within the community of Christ-followers: ‘For this reason, many among you are weak and sick, and quite a few are dying’ (11.30). This essay offers a physical interpretation of 1 Cor 11.30, contending that Paul presents the bodies of both the ‘have-nots’ and those who shame them as suffering because of the practice of the Lord's Supper, the former from dietary deprivation and the latter from overconsumption.
Natural samples of the substituted basic Cu(II) chloride series, Cu4–xMx2+(OH)6Cl2(M = Zn, Ni, or Mg) were investigated by single-crystal X-ray diffraction in order to elucidate compositional boundaries associated with paratacamite and its congeners. The compositional ranges examined are Cu3.65Zn0.35(OH)6Cl2 – Cu3.36Zn0.64(OH)6Cl2 and Cu3.61Ni0.39(OH)6Cl2 – Cu3.13Ni0.87(OH)6Cl2, along with a single Mg-bearing phase. The majority of samples studied have trigonal symmetry (R3̄m) analogous to that of herbertsmithite (Zn) and gillardite (Ni), with a ≈ 6.8, c ≈ 14.0 Å. Crystallographic variations for these samples caused by composition are compared with both published and new data for the R3̄m sub-cell of paratacamite, paratacamite-(Mg) and paratacamite-(Ni). The observed trends suggest that the composition of end-members associated with the paratacamite congeners depend upon the nature of the substituting cation.
In his letter to the Philippians, Polycarp of Smyrna offers a reading of 1 Timothy 6 in which he uses the term ‘the commandment’ as an apparent reference to the practice of almsgiving. Polycarp's Philippians, therefore, offers important and heretofore neglected evidence that supports recent contentions that ‘the commandment’ in 1 Tim 6.14 is almsgiving.
The subsurface exploration of other planetary bodies can be used to unravel their geological history and assess their habitability. On Mars in particular, present-day habitable conditions may be restricted to the subsurface. Using a deep subsurface mine, we carried out a program of extraterrestrial analog research – MINe Analog Research (MINAR). MINAR aims to carry out the scientific study of the deep subsurface and test instrumentation designed for planetary surface exploration by investigating deep subsurface geology, whilst establishing the potential this technology has to be transferred into the mining industry. An integrated multi-instrument suite was used to investigate samples of representative evaporite minerals from a subsurface Permian evaporite sequence, in particular to assess mineral and elemental variations which provide small-scale regions of enhanced habitability. The instruments used were the Panoramic Camera emulator, Close-Up Imager, Raman spectrometer, Small Planetary Linear Impulse Tool, Ultrasonic drill and handheld X-ray diffraction (XRD). We present science results from the analog research and show that these instruments can be used to investigate in situ the geological context and mineralogical variations of a deep subsurface environment, and thus habitability, from millimetre to metre scales. We also show that these instruments are complementary. For example, the identification of primary evaporite minerals such as NaCl and KCl, which are difficult to detect by portable Raman spectrometers, can be accomplished with XRD. By contrast, Raman is highly effective at locating and detecting mineral inclusions in primary evaporite minerals. MINAR demonstrates the effective use of a deep subsurface environment for planetary instrument development, understanding the habitability of extreme deep subsurface environments on Earth and other planetary bodies, and advancing the use of space technology in economic mining.
In 1 Clement 32–33, Romans 5–6 is alluded to in a summary statement concerning justification by faith (32.4), followed by two rhetorical questions that stress the ethical implications of this confession (33.1). These allusions to Romans are punctuated by an appeal for readers to imitate the pattern of good works established by God during creation (33.2-8). This article contends that the difference between Romans 5–6 and one of the earliest Christian readings of these chapters is not accidental, for the ethical appeal in 1 Clement 33 reflects the author's distinct cosmological perspective and rhetorical aims.
The narrative of Acts has often been mined for historical information about the monetary collection that Paul raised among the Gentile churches of his mission for the saints in Jerusalem. Most scholars have assumed that Acts refers to the Pauline collection, either in 11.27–30 or 24.17. Against this consensus, this paper contends that the narrative of Acts, when read on its own terms and without the imposition of information from the Pauline epistles, neither mentions nor alludes to Paul's collection for Jerusalem. In its narrative context, Acts 24.17, far from being a reference to the collection, identifies Paul before his accusers as a faithful Jew whose individual piety is demonstrated by almsgiving and worship. Information from the book of Acts, therefore, cannot be used to write the final chapter of the historical reconstruction of the Pauline collection.
To study an increase of antimicrobial-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii and to assess reasons for the delayed detection of this increase.
Review of medical, laboratory, and infection control records. Plasmid profile analysis of available A baumannii isolates.
A 340-bed trauma and intensive care hospital in Detroit, Michigan.
The number of hospitalized patients with resistant A baumannii increased during late 1989 and early 1990: 4 in September, 10 in October, 12 in November, 18 in December, and 23 in January (chi square for trend = 14.6, p= .0001). Forty-four (66%) of the 67 patients culture-positive for resistant A baumannii had respiratory tract colonization or infection. Of 11 resistant isolates, 6 had a similar plasmid profile and 5 had no plasmids. Under the hospital's targeted surveillance system, only positive cultures from blood or wounds were investigated; this largely respiratory increase of resistant A baumannii went unrecognized until January 1990.
Antimicrobial resistance in A baumannii is an important concern. Such resistance is not necessarily plasmid mediated. Tar geted surveillance for this and other agents of nosocomial infection should be used with caution, particularly in hospitals with many debilitated patients.
Let K be a closed, bounded, convex, nonempty subset of a Hilbert Space . It is shown that if is a left reversible, uniformly k-lipschitzian semigroup of mappings of K into itself, with k < √2, then has a common fixed point in K.
Seven species of Culicoides were collected from aerial sweeps about man or from aspiration of biting midges from man in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. Hourly sweep netting indicated C. biguttatus was diurnal in this region and was apparently limited in its dispersion. Culicoides sanguisuga was the most widely distributed species of those collected in the region. A checklist of the 15 species of Culicoides now known from New Brunswick and Nova Scotia is included.
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