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The chapter presents a range of research evidence that supports a social model of recovery from substance use disorders and combines them into a conceptual framework for building recovery capital across the course of the recovery journey. The model is predicated on the mental health recovery concept of CHIME (Connectedness, Hope, Identity, Meaning and Empowerment) combined with positive social connections (often involving peer-based support), resulting in a belief in change that enables an individual to engage in meaningful activities. These developments in turn can generate a virtuous cycle of empowerment, positive self-efficacy, and self-esteem that promote a positive social identity that is sustained through engagement in prosocial recovery and community groups and activities. At a collective level, this has benefits for communities and cities in generating new connections and greater access to resources that result in improved community capital and Recovery Cities.
Lack of knowledge and discriminatory attitudes and behaviours towards individuals with mental disorders is a worldwide problem but may be particularly damaging for young people. This pilot study examined knowledge, attitudes and behaviours towards schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and autism within a large sample of adults in Ireland, a country with the youngest population in Europe, in order to better understand public views on these groups.
In a correlational, cross-sectional design, 307 adults in Ireland over the age of 18 completed a questionnaire over Google Forms examining knowledge, attitudes and behaviours towards schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and autism. Responses to questions specifically relating to each diagnosis were compared using trimmed mean ANOVA to examine whether responses to questions differed depending on diagnosis.
Results indicate varied knowledge, attitudes and behaviours towards these groups, but a majority believe it should be a research priority. ANOVA and post hoc tests revealed significant differences in knowledge, attitudes and behaviours towards each of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and autism (p < 0.005), and reported attitudes and behaviours towards schizophrenia were more negative than either bipolar disorder or autism. A majority of participants (54.8%) felt not informed enough about mental health by the media.
In our Irish sample, type and level of stigma varies according to mental health diagnosis. Our sample also report feeling inadequately informed about mental health by the media. Thus future policy and campaigns could consider targeting individual mental health diagnoses, with a focus on increasing familiarity and knowledge.
To identify discrete approaches to specialist healthcare support for older care home residents in the UK and to estimate their prevalence.
Internationally, a range of new initiatives are emerging to meet the multiple and complex healthcare needs of care home residents. However, little is known about their relative effectiveness and, given their heterogeneity, a classification scheme is required to enable research staff to explore this.
A UK survey collected information on the funding, age, coverage, aims, staffing and activities of 64 specialist care home support services. Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to allocate the sample into subgroups with similar characteristics.
Three classes were identified. Class 1 (55% of sample) contained services with a high probability of providing scheduled input (regular preplanned visits) and support for all residents and a moderate probability of undertaking medication management, but a low probability of training care home staff (‘predominantly direct care’). Class 2 (23% of sample) had a moderate/high probability of providing scheduled input, support for all residents, medication management and training (‘direct and indirect care’). Class 3 (22% of sample) had a low probability of providing scheduled input, support for all residents and medication management, but a high probability of providing training for care home staff (‘predominantly indirect care’). Consultants were more likely to be members of services in Class 1 than Class 2, and Class 2 than Class 3.
LCA offers a promising approach to the creation of a taxonomy of specialist care home support services. The skills and knowledge required by healthcare staff vary between classes, raising important issues for service design. The proposed classification can be used to explore the extent to which different organisational forms are associated with better resident, process and service outcomes.
Research suggests that a significant minority of hospital in-patients could be more appropriately supported in the community if enhanced services were available. However, little is known about these individuals or the services they require.
To identify which individuals require what services, at what cost.
A ‘balance of care’ (BoC) study was undertaken in northern England. Drawing on routine electronic data about 315 admissions categorised into patient groups, frontline practitioners identified patients whose needs could be met in alternative settings and specified the services they required, using a modified nominal group approach. Costing employed a public-sector approach.
Community care was deemed appropriate for approximately a quarter of admissions including people with mild-moderate depression, an eating disorder or personality disorder, and some people with schizophrenia. Proposed community alternatives drew heavily on carer support services, community mental health teams and consultants, and there was widespread consensus on the need to increase out-of-hours community services. The costs of the proposed community care were relatively modest compared with hospital admission. On average social care costs increased by approximately £60 per week, but total costs fell by £1626 per week.
The findings raise strategic issues for both national policymakers and local service planners. Patients who could be managed at home can be characterised by diagnosis. Although potential financial savings were identified, the reported cost differences do not directly equate to cost savings. It is not clear whether in-patient beds could be reduced. However, existing beds could be more efficiently used.
The Psychology of Musical Development provides an up-to-date and comprehensive account of the latest theory, empirical research and applications in the study of musical development, an important and emerging field of music psychology. After considering how people now engage with music in the digital world, and reviewing current advances in developmental and music psychology, Hargreaves and Lamont compare ten major theoretical approaches in this field - including cognitive stage models and neuroscientific, ecological and social cognitive approaches - and assess how successfully each of these deals with five critical theoretical issues. Individual chapters deal next with cognition, perception and learning; social development; environmental influences on ability, achievement and motivation; identity, personality and lifestyle; affect and emotion; and well-being and health. With an emphasis on practical applications throughout, this book will be essential reading for students and scholars of music psychology, developmental psychology, music education and music therapy.