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We present the data and initial results from the first pilot survey of the Evolutionary Map of the Universe (EMU), observed at 944 MHz with the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) telescope. The survey covers
of an area covered by the Dark Energy Survey, reaching a depth of 25–30
rms at a spatial resolution of
11–18 arcsec, resulting in a catalogue of
220 000 sources, of which
180 000 are single-component sources. Here we present the catalogue of single-component sources, together with (where available) optical and infrared cross-identifications, classifications, and redshifts. This survey explores a new region of parameter space compared to previous surveys. Specifically, the EMU Pilot Survey has a high density of sources, and also a high sensitivity to low surface brightness emission. These properties result in the detection of types of sources that were rarely seen in or absent from previous surveys. We present some of these new results here.
Whereas scholars have typically modeled climate change as a global collective action challenge, we offer a dynamic theory of climate politics based on the present and future revaluation of assets. Climate politics can be understood as a contest between owners of assets that accelerate climate change, such as fossil fuel plants, and owners of assets vulnerable to climate change, such as coastal property. To date, obstruction by “climate-forcing” asset holders has been a large barrier to effective climate policy. But as climate change and decarbonization policies proceed, holders of both climate-forcing and “climate-vulnerable” assets stand to lose some or even all of their assets' value over time, and with them, the basis of their political power. This dynamic contest between opposing interests is likely to intensify in many sites of political contestation, from the subnational to transnational levels. As it does so, climate politics will become increasingly existential, potentially reshaping political alignments within and across countries. Such shifts may further undermine the Liberal International Order (LIO); as countries develop pro-climate policies at different speeds and magnitudes, they will have incentives to diverge from existing arrangements over trade and economic integration.
We characterized the impact of removal of the ESBL designation from microbiology reports on inpatient antibiotic prescribing. Definitive prescribing of carbapenems decreased from 48.4% to 16.1% (P = .01) and β-lactam–β-lactamase inhibitor combination increased from 19.4% to 61.3% (P = .002). Our findings confirm the importance of collaboration between microbiology and antimicrobial stewardship programs.
The influence of fixed temperature and fixed heat flux thermal boundary conditions on rapidly rotating convection in the plane layer geometry is investigated for the case of stress-free mechanical boundary conditions. It is shown that whereas the leading-order system satisfies fixed temperature boundary conditions implicitly, a double boundary layer structure is necessary to satisfy the fixed heat flux thermal boundary conditions. The boundary layers consist of a classical Ekman layer adjacent to the solid boundaries that adjust viscous stresses to zero, and a layer in thermal wind balance just outside the Ekman layers that adjusts the normal derivative of the temperature fluctuation to zero. The influence of these boundary layers on the interior geostrophically balanced convection is shown to be asymptotically weak, however. Upon defining a simple rescaling of the thermal variables, the leading-order reduced system of governing equations is therefore equivalent for both boundary conditions. These results imply that any horizontal thermal variation along the boundaries that varies on the scale of the convection has no leading-order influence on the interior convection, thus providing insight into geophysical and astrophysical flows where stress-free mechanical boundary conditions are often assumed.
We present first imaging results from the PALM-3000 adaptive optics system and PHARO camera on the Hale 5 m telescope. Observations using a vector vortex coronagraph have given us direct detections of the two-ring dusty debris system around the star HD 141569. Our observations reveal the inner clearing in the disk to unprecedentedly small angular separations, and are the most sensitive yet at the H and K bands. We are for the first time able to measure and compare the colors of the scattered light in the inner and outer dust rings, and find that the outer ring is significantly bluer than the inner ring.
Scaling contact lithography (microcontact printing, microflexography, and nanoimprint lithography) to large roll-to-roll platforms will enable high speed, low cost lithographic patterning of surfaces. However, many details of robust implementations at the roll-to-roll scale remain an engineering challenge, including precise regulation of printing pressures and the stamp-substrate interaction. This paper introduces a method for precise control of contact pressure that can accommodate large dimensional variations, i.e. varying stamp and substrate thicknesses. This control algorithm is implemented on a simply supported roll positioning stage. Experimental results for microcontact printing and microflexography are shown both with in situ contact measurements on a pseudo substrate and with 5 um silver nanoparticle prints. Ultimately, this approach enables robust printing despite sensitive stamp patterns and large dimensional variations (> 10 μm) in substrates, stamps, and roll equipment.
Background and purpose: Adherence to medication is fundamental to optimal health recovery yet compliance to medication rates are lower than 50% in most studies. This study aimed to investigate the correlates of adherence in stroke patients. Method: Twenty-six stroke patients and 29 amputee patients who had completed a rehabilitation program at Melbourne Rehabilitation Centre were investigated. Medical adherence was determined from computed adherence metrics based on pill counts and subjective reports of patient knowledge of medication use. Model components that were believed to contribute to poor adherence, included emotional and cognitive dysfunction, beliefs about medication, and social support. These factors were assessed by patient and partner self-rating questionnaires. Results: Stroke patients showed a lower level of adherence compared to amputee patients. Cognitive and emotional dysfunction, beliefs about medication, and the level of care were significantly associated with low adherence to medicine regimes in stroke patients. Level of cognitive impairment and emotional impairment were significantly associated with low adherence to medicines in amputee patients. Emotional dysfunction was the best predictor of poor adherence in both patient groups. Conclusion: The findings are in keeping with past adherence studies with other patient groups and support the position that emotional, cognitive, and social factors are important factors in adherence. The specific nonadherence profile for this brain-damaged group is modeled and the application for outpatients following rehabilitation is discussed.
Abstract. Although exit polling has not been used to study
Canadian elections before, such polls have methodological features that
make them a potentially useful complement to data collected through more
conventional designs. This paper reports on an experiment with exit
polling in one constituency in the 2003 Ontario provincial election. Using
student volunteers, a research team at Wilfrid Laurier University
conducted an exit poll in the bellwether constituency of Kitchener Centre
to assess the feasibility of mounting this kind of study on a broader
scale. The experiment was successful in a number of respects. It produced
a sample of 653 voters that broadly reflected the partisan character of
the constituency, and which can hence be used to shed light on patterns of
vote-switching and voter motivations in that constituency. It also yielded
insights about best practices in mounting an exit poll in the Ontario
context, as well as about the potential for using wireless communication
devices to transmit respondent data from the field. The researchers
conclude that exit polling on a limited basis (selected constituencies) is
feasible, but the costs and logistics associated with this methodology
make a province-wide or country-wide study unsupportable at present.
Résumé. Bien que les sondages “sortie des
urnes” n'aient pas été utilisés
jusqu'ici dans l'étude des élections au Canada, de
tels sondages possèdent certaines caractéristiques qui en
font un complément potentiellement très utile des
méthodes plus traditionnelles de cueillette des données. Cet
article rend compte d'un sondage “sortie des urnes”
expérimental effectué dans une circonscription lors de
l'élection provinciale de 2003 en Ontario. Utilisant des
bénévoles étudiants, une équipe de recherche
de l'Université Wilfrid Laurier a conduit un sondage
“sortie des urnes” à Kitchener Centre, une
circonscription indicatrice de tendance, afin de déterminer la
faisabilité de ce type d'étude au niveau
fédéral. L'expérience a réussi à
plusieurs égards. Elle a fourni un échantillon de 653
électeurs qui reflétaient en gros le caractère
partisan de la circonscription, ce qui a rendu possible
l'étude des motivations des électeurs et des
revirements de vote dans la région. L'expérience a
aussi fourni des renseignements sur les pratiques exemplaires concernant
l'utilisation des sondages “sortie des urnes” au niveau
provincial, ainsi que sur la possibilité d'employer des
techniques de communication sans fil pour transmettre les données
recueillies des répondants. Les chercheurs ont conclu que les
sondages “sortie des urnes” sont réalisables dans un
cadre restreint, dans certaines circonscriptions
sélectionnées, mais que les coûts et la logistique
nécessités par cette méthodologie la rendent
actuellement impraticable pour une étude à
l'échelle provinciale ou nationale.
We describe what is, to the best of our knowledge, a previously unreported association in patients with similar facial features, skin and joint laxity, of lengthening and tortuosity of systemic, pulmonary and coronary vessels. We evaluated 12 patients with similar phenotypes, from eight different families. Detailed echocardiographic and angiographic evaluations were performed in all, and biopsies of the skin in seven. All patients have elongated facies, prominent ears, micrognathia and laxity of their joints. Angiographic pictures showed a varying degree of lengthening and tortuosity of systemic, pulmonary, and coronary arteries. Pulsatile carotid arteries formed cervical masses in 2 patients, and three had severe renal arterial stenoses. All showed varying degrees of branch and peripheral pulmonary arterial stenosis, necessitating placement of stents in six. Biopsy of the skin proved normal in all seven patients studied, thus excluding cutis laxa, Ehlers-Danlos and Marfan syndromes. The constellation of abnormalities suggests a genetic syndrome of connective tissue etiology. Further genetic studies, and gene mapping, are underway.
Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) have influenced a sown pioneer grassland on limestone quarry spoil from its outset. They have been responsible for middens characterized by a distinct microspatial assemblage of plant species, in which common mesic species are favoured. They have benefited conservation through producing spatial heterogeneity of the spoil surface — thus increasing the number of available ecological niches. They have also mediated an importation of plant nutrients so gradual that competitive ruderal species have (with the exception of Ragwort, Senecio jacobaea) not been encouraged, whilst some desirable ‘rabbit-resistant’ species have become established particularly on the middens.
‘Normal grazing’ is a behavioural pattern which can maintain a sward, even when potentially dominating mesic species become established. However, ‘casual grazing’, and browsing, of conspicuous or rare plants, is likely to be disadvantageous. Manipulation of intrinsically unpredictable seral quarry floras through interference by Rabbit populations, or with Rabbit-access, may be an option on such sites.
CVD deposited diamond-like carbon (DLC) films have been studied for possible use as a secondary standard for Low Earth Orbit materials degradation. Samples of various thicknesses have been exposed to a simulated Low Earth Orbit atomic oxygen (AO) environment using a plasma asher. Mass loss measurements indicate that DLC degrades at a rate of 0.7 mg/hr which is two to three times the rate of currently used Kapton samples which degrade at a rate of.3 mg/hr. Thickness measurements show that DLC thins at a rate of 77 Angstroms/min. Since DLC is not as susceptible to environmental factors such as moisture absorption, it could potentially provide more accurate measurements of AO fluence on short space flights. Adhesion of DLC films to both fused silica and crystalline silicon substrates has been studied under thermal cycling conditions. Film adhesion to fused silica can be enhanced by sputtering a thin layer of silicon dioxide onto the substrate prior to deposition. In addition to the above, the index of refraction and extinction coefficient of various thicknesses of DLC films has been characterized by Variable Angle Spectroscopic Ellipsometry.