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To investigate the current epidemiology of melioidosis in Yangon, Myanmar, between June 2017 and May 2019 we conducted enhanced surveillance for melioidosis in four tertiary hospitals in Yangon, where the disease was first discovered in 1911. Oxidase-positive Gram-negative rods were obtained from the microbiology laboratories and further analysed at the Department of Medical Research. Analysis included culture on Ashdown agar, the three disc sensitivity test (gentamicin, colistin and co-amoxiclav), latex agglutination, API 20 NE, antibiotic susceptibility testing, and a subset underwent molecular confirmation with a Burkholderia pseudomallei specific assay. Twenty one of 364 isolates (5.7%) were confirmed as B. pseudomallei and were mostly susceptible to the antibiotics used in standard therapy for melioidosis. Ten patients were from Yangon Region, nine were from Ayeyarwaddy region, and one each was from Kayin and Rakhine States. A history of soil contact was given by seven patients, five had diabetes mellitus and one had renal insufficiency. The patients presented with septicaemia (12 cases), pneumonia (three cases), urinary tract infection (two cases) and wound infection (four cases). Eighteen patients survived to hospital discharge. This study highlights the likelihood that melioidosis may be far more common, but underdiagnosed, in more rural parts of Myanmar as in other countries in SE Asia.
It would not be very much of an overstatement to say that modern academic writing about medieval warfare – in English, at least – began with Sir Charles Oman, whose first essay on the subject was written in 1884 and later expanded into his History of the Art of War in the Middle Ages, which went through two editions (1898 and 1924). Oman’s brisk narrative weaving together weaponry, military institutions and exemplary battles is typical of the pioneering generation of literature on the subject – and not just in English, as attested by such works as Hans Delbrück’sGeschichte der Kriegskunst im Rahmen der politischen Geschichte (three editions between 1900 and 1920) and Ferdinand Lot’s L’Art militaire et les armées au Moyen Age en Europe et dans le Proche Orient (1946). Another characteristic shared by all of these early surveys is their lack of interest in the world beyond Europe, except to the extent that Europeans came into contact with that world through encounters such as the Crusades (as suggested by the wording of Lot’s title).
Volume II of The Cambridge History of War covers what in Europe is commonly called 'the Middle Ages'. It includes all of the well-known themes of European warfare, from the migrations of the Germanic peoples and the Vikings through the Reconquista, the Crusades and the age of chivalry, to the development of state-controlled gunpowder-wielding armies and the urban militias of the later middle ages; yet its scope is world-wide, ranging across Eurasia and the Americas to trace the interregional connections formed by the great Arab conquests and the expansion of Islam, the migrations of horse nomads such as the Avars and the Turks, the formation of the vast Mongol Empire, and the spread of new technologies – including gunpowder and the earliest firearms – by land and sea.
The chronology and cause of millennial depositional oscillations within last glacial loess of the Central Lowlands of the United States are uncertain. Here, we present a new age model that indicates the Peoria Silt along the Illinois River Valley accumulated episodically from ~28,500 to 16,000 cal yr BP, as the Lake Michigan Lobe margin fluctuated within northeastern Illinois. The age model indicates accelerated loess deposition coincident with regional glacial advances during the local last glacial maximum. A weakly developed paleosol, the Jules Geosol, represents a period of significantly slower deposition, from 23,700 to 22,000 cal yr BP. A gastropod assemblage-based reconstruction of mean July temperature shows temperatures 6–10°C cooler than modern during Peoria Silt deposition. Stable oxygen and carbon isotope values (δ18O and δ13C) of gastropod carbonate do not vary significantly across the pedostratigraphic boundary of the Jules Geosol, suggesting slower loess accumulation was a result of reduced glacial sediment supply rather than direct climatic factors. However, a decrease in δ18O values occurred between 26,000 and 24,000 cal yr BP, synchronous with the Lake Michigan Lobe’s southernmost advance. This δ18O decrease suggests a coupling of regional summer hydroclimate and ice lobe position during the late glacial period.
During the last deglaciation temperatures over midcontinental North America warmed dramatically through the Bølling-Allerød, underwent a cool period associated with the Younger-Dryas and then reverted to warmer, near modern temperatures during the early Holocene. However, paleo proxy records of the hydroclimate of this period have presented divergent evidence. We reconstruct summer relative humidity (RH) across the last deglacial period using a mechanistic model of cellulose and leaf water δ18O and δD combined with a pollen-based temperature proxy to interpret stable isotopes of sub-fossil wood. Midcontinental RH was similar to modern conditions during the Last Glacial Maximum, progressively increased during the Bølling-Allerød, peaked during the Younger-Dryas, and declined sharply during the early Holocene. This RH record suggests deglacial summers were cooler and characterized by greater advection of moisture-laden air-masses from the Gulf of Mexico and subsequent entrainment over the mid-continent by a high-pressure system over the Laurentide ice sheet. These patterns help explain the formation of dark-colored cumulic horizons in many Great Plains paleosol sequences and the development of no-analog vegetation types common to the Midwest during the last deglacial period. Likewise, reduced early Holocene RH and precipitation correspond with a diminished glacial high-pressure system during the latter stages of ice-sheet collapse.
Are terrorists like gang members? Terrorists commit crimes, primarily murder and assault. Gang members also commit crimes, including murder and assault. Gang members are more likely to commit a wider variety of crimes (Klein, 1971, 1995; Spergel, 1995). As Rosenfeld (2002, p. 1) notes, many criminologists bear only a “grudging acceptance of terrorism” as a subject of study by criminology. Gang researchers, including this author, have balked at any connection between terrorism and gang crime, because the prospect flies in the face of what we already know about gangs. In particular, there is a belief among many of us that what is most important about gangs was already said by Frederic Thrasher (1927). Research on gangs has a long academic tradition. To propose a relationship between gangs and terrorism is considered by some as an encroachment on that tradition.
It turns out, however, that comparing street gangs to terrorist organizations is more promising than I had thought originally. I use the term “street gangs” as defined by Klein (1995) to refer to gangs that include both young adults and juveniles. Leaving either adults or juveniles out of the gang process distorts perceptions of gang crime.
In “Why Criminologists Should Study Terrorism,” Rosenfeld (2002, p. 2) suggests, “It is our (criminologists') fault, our poverty of intellectual imagination prevents us from studying terrorism.” Rosenfeld argues that criminologists “blame terrorism when our theories don't fit terrorism.” He suggests that criminologists should instead blame our theories.
Field experiments were conducted at Belleville, Colby, Hays, Hesston, Garden City, and Manhattan, KS, to determine grain sorghum response to POST application of mesotrione at three application timings. Mesotrione was applied at 52, 105, 157, and 210 g ai/ha in combination with 280 g ai/ha atrazine to grain sorghum at heights of 5 to 8, 15 to 20, and 30 cm, which correspond to early POST (EPOST), mid-POST (MPOST), and late POST (LPOST), respectively. All mesotrione rates caused injury at all application timings. Overall, grain sorghum injury from mesotrione was greatest at 1 wk after treatment (WAT); plants partially recovered from injury by 4 WAT. Mesotrione applied EPOST injured grain sorghum more than when applied at MPOST and LPOST timings. The EPOST application injured grain sorghum 19 to 88%, whereas injury from MPOST and LPOST application was 1 to 66% and 0 to 69%, respectively, depending on rate. Mesotrione injury was least at Belleville and most at the Hesston and Garden City (irrigated) sites regardless of growth stage. Correlation coefficient analyses indicated that observed mesotrione injury symptoms were not well correlated with grain sorghum yield; thus, mesotrione injury to grain sorghum did not influence grain yield. However, initial grain sorghum injury was severe, and this will likely be a major concern to producers.
Remission is a new research outcome indicating long-term wellness. Remission not only sets a standard for minimal severity of symptoms and signs (resolution); it also sets a standard for how long symptoms and signs need to remain at this minimal level (6 months). Individuals who achieve remission from schizophrenia have better subjective well-being and better functional outcomes than those who do not. Research suggests that remission can be achieved in 20–60% of people with schizophrenia. There is some evidence of the usefulness of remission as an outcome indicator for clinicians, service users and their carers. This article reviews the literature on remission in schizophrenia and asks whether it could be a useful clinical standard of well-being and a foundation for functional improvement and recovery.