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All the articles in this volume have been inspired by the life and the work of Elisabeth van Houts. All are in one way or another reflections on the book’s chosen title and of her remarkable range of interests and sympathies. In assembling the group of scholars who have written these essays, the editors are profoundly aware that Liesbeth has influenced so many people as friends, colleagues and students. We hope that all will regard this volume as an appropriate tribute to her.
This chapter's thesis is that it is only through an analysis that integrates personal, contextual, ethical and literary factors that we can understand the place of the eleventh- and twelfth-century historians of the Normans within the identity and the history – and the identities and the histories – of the Normans. It is about the dialogue between the personal and the public. To do this, what we can know of the personal biographies, life experiences and beliefs of the historians must be combined with an analysis of genre and context. Viewed in this way the historians become the reflectors of events as well as their recorders. Cultural memory and analyses associated with the so-called 'Vienna School' are of great importance to the argument. The historians are also seen as working within contemporary forms of moral discourse that sought to make sense of, and even to improve, the disturbed and often violent world of their times. The chapter concludes with some references to interaction with contemporary historians writing in England.
How did medieval people define themselves? And how did they balance their identities as individuals with the demands of their communities? Lives, Identities and Histories in the Central Middle Ages intertwines the study of identities with current scholarship to reveal their multi-layered, sometimes contradictory dimensions. Drawing on a wide range of sources, from legal texts to hagiographies and biblical exegesis, and diverse cultural and social approaches, this volume enriches our understanding of medieval people's identities - as defined by themselves and by others, as individuals and as members of groups and communities. It adopts a complex and wide-ranging understanding of what constituted 'identities' beyond family and regional or national belonging, such as social status, gender, age, literacy levels, and displacement. New figures and new concepts of 'identities' thus emerge from the dialogue between the chapters, through an approach based on life-histories, lived experience, ethnogenesis, theories of diaspora, cultural memory and generational change.
Photography played an increasingly significant role in surrealism in the 1920s and especially the 1930s, when the art form was becoming ever more popular across printed picture magazines and mass-media newspapers. During this time, the surrealists developed their own avant-garde uses of photography, turning it into both a surrealist art practice in its own right and as a means to represent the surrealist group and their interests. The chapter argues that the surrealists employed a diversity of photographic techniques and genres, and developed these in new ways, as demonstrated across their various activities in public forums, surrealist magazines, exhibitions and books. Since photography was situated clearly within the aims of the surrealist project, surrealist photography becomes both a reflection on and a means of constructing the images of their vision, desire, dreams and social ambitions, which were all too often at variance with the predominant social uses of photography.
Natural and anthropogenic stressors, including parasites and pesticides, may induce oxidative stress in animals. Measuring oxidative stress responses in sentinel species that are particularly responsive to environmental perturbations not only provides insight into host physiology but is also a useful readout of ecosystem health. Newly metamorphosed northern leopard frogs (Lithobates pipiens), a sentinel species, were collected from agricultural and non-agricultural wetlands exposed to varying concentrations of the herbicide atrazine. Significant effects of certain parasites' abundance and their interaction with atrazine exposure on frog oxidative stress were identified. Specifically, increased protein levels were detected in frogs infected with echinostome metacercariae. In addition, the nematode Oswaldocruzia sp. was significantly associated with increased thiol concentration and catalase activity. Significant parasite × atrazine interactions were observed for atrazine exposure and the abundance of Oswaldocruzia sp. on thiol, as thiol concentrations increased with parasite abundance at low atrazine localities and decreased in high atrazine wetlands. In addition, a significant interaction between the abundances of Oswaldocruzia sp. and gorgoderid trematodes on thiol concentrations was observed. These findings demonstrate that studies of oxidative stress on animals in natural ecosystems should account for the confounding effects of parasitism, particularly for amphibians in agricultural landscapes.
Callery pear (Pyrus calleryana Decne.) is rapidly spreading in the United States, gaining attention in the last two decades as a serious invasive pest. Recommended control methods include foliar, basal bark, cut stump, and hack-and-squirt application of herbicides, but there are few published studies with replicated data on efficacy. Four readily available herbicidal active ingredients and a combination of two active ingredients were tested for control efficacy against P. calleryana in old-field areas and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) understory. Basal bark applications (triclopyr, triclopyr + aminopyralid), foliar applications (glyphosate, imazapyr), and a soil application (hexazinone) effectively killed P. calleryana with the exception of hexazinone at one site, where rainfall may not have been optimal. Foliar application of glyphosate provided the most consistent control. Our results demonstrate efficacy of registered herbicide formulations for P. calleryana control in two geographic locations and two habitat types. The need for development of integrated pest management programs for P. calleryana is discussed.
To identify interstage best practices associated with lower mortality, we studied National Pediatric Cardiology Quality Improvement Collaborative centres registry using a positive deviance approach.
Positive deviant and control centre team members were interviewed to identify potential interstage best practices. Subsequently, all collaborative centres were surveyed on the use of these practices to test their associations with centre mortality. Questionnaires were scored using Likert scales; the overall score was linearly transformed to a 0–100-point scale with higher scores indicating increased use of practices. Mortality was based on patients enrolled after a centre’s first year in the collaborative. Centre mortality rates were divided into tertiles. Survey scores for the low mortality tertile were compared with the other tertiles.
For this study, seven positive deviant and four control teams were interviewed. A total of 20 potential best practices were identified, including team composition, improvement practices, and parent involvement. Questionnaires were completed by 36/43 eligible centres, providing 1504 patients for analysis. Average survey score was 50.2 (SD 13.4). Average mortality was 6.1% (SD 4.1). There was no correlation between survey scores and mortality (r=0.14, p=0.41). The one practice associated with the low mortality tertile was frequency of discussion of interstage results: 58.3% of low mortality teams discussed results at least monthly versus 8.4% of the middle and high tertile centres (p=0.02).
Low-mortality centres more frequently discuss interstage results than high-mortality centres. Heightened awareness of outcomes may influence practice; however, further study is needed to understand the variation in outcomes across centres.
Although interstage mortality for infants with hypoplastic left heart syndrome has declined within the National Pediatric Cardiology Quality Improvement Collaborative, variation across centres persists. It remains unclear whether centres with lower interstage mortality have lower-risk patients or whether differences in care may explain this variation. We examined previously established risk factors across National Pediatric Cardiology Quality Improvement Collaborative centres with lower and higher interstage mortality rates.
Lower-mortality centres were defined as those with >25 consecutive interstage survivors. Higher-mortality centres were defined as those with cumulative interstage mortality rates >10%, which is a collaborative historic baseline rate. Baseline risk factors and perioperative characteristics were compared.
Seven lower-mortality centres were identified (n=331 patients) and had an interstage mortality rate of 2.7%, as compared with 13.3% in the four higher-mortality centres (n=173 patients, p<0.0001). Of all baseline risk factors examined, the only factor that differed between the lower- and higher-mortality centres was postnatal diagnosis (18.4 versus 31.8%, p=0.001). In multivariable analysis, there remained a significant mortality difference between the two groups of centres after adjusting for this variable: adjusted mortality rate was 2.8% in lower-mortality centres compared with 12.6% in higher-mortality centres, p=0.003. Secondary analyses identified multiple differences between groups in perioperative practices and other variables.
Variation in interstage mortality rates between these two groups of centres does not appear to be explained by differences in baseline risk factors. Further study is necessary to evaluate variation in care practices to identify targets for improvement efforts.
This paper examines management’s motives for rejecting takeover bids and the associated shareholder wealth effects. We develop measures of initial bid quality and find a significant negative correlation between the quality of a bid and rejection. The likelihood of higher follow-on offers decreases with bid quality and is greater when targets have classified boards and chief executive officers (CEOs) with significant personal wealth tied to the transaction. Target CEOs who fail to close high-quality offers experience a significant rate of forced turnover. Overall, the results support a price improvement motive for contested bids.