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The Hawaiian archipelago was formerly home to one of the most species-rich land snail faunas (> 752 species), with levels of endemism > 99%. Many native Hawaiian land snail species are now extinct, and the remaining fauna is vulnerable. Unfortunately, lack of information on critical habitat requirements for Hawaiian land snails limits the development of effective conservation strategies. The purpose of this study was to examine the plant host preferences of native arboreal land snails in Puʻu Kukui Watershed, West Maui, Hawaiʻi, and compare these patterns to those from similar studies on the islands of Oʻahu and Hawaiʻi. Concordant with studies on other islands, we found that four species from three diverse families of snails in Puʻu Kukui Watershed had preferences for a few species of understorey plants. These were not the most abundant canopy or mid canopy species, indicating that forests without key understorey plants may not support the few remaining lineages of native snails. Preference for Broussaisia arguta among various island endemic snails across all studies indicates that this species is important for restoration to improve snail habitat. As studies examining host plant preferences are often incongruent with studies examining snail feeding, we suggest that we are in the infancy of defining what constitutes critical habitat for most Hawaiian arboreal snails. However, our results indicate that preserving diverse native plant assemblages, particularly understorey plant species, which facilitate key interactions, is critical to the goal of conserving the remaining threatened snail fauna.
Analyses of embedded liberalism have focused overwhelmingly on trade in goods and capital, to the exclusion of migration. We argue that much as capital controls were essential components of the embedded liberal compromise, so too were restrictions on the democratic and social rights of labor migrants. Generous welfare programs in labor-receiving countries thrived alongside inclusionary immigration policies, but this balanced arrangement was only tenable if migrants were politically excluded in their destination countries. That is, embedded liberalism abroad rested on exclusionary political foundations at home. In bringing together the IPE literature on the “globalization trilemma” with the comparative politics of citizenship, we provide a novel account of how embedded liberalism worked politically, with implications for current debates about the fate of the liberal order in a time of populist resurgence.
With the future of liberal internationalism in question, how will China's growing power and influence reshape world politics? We argue that views of the Liberal International Order (LIO) as integrative and resilient have been too optimistic for two reasons. First, China's ability to profit from within the system has shaken the domestic consensus in the United States on preserving the existing LIO. Second, features of Chinese Communist Party rule chafe against many of the fundamental principles of the LIO, but could coexist with a return to Westphalian principles and markets that are embedded in domestic systems of control. How, then, do authoritarian states like China pick and choose how to engage with key institutions and norms within the LIO? We propose a framework that highlights two domestic variables—centrality and heterogeneity—and their implications for China's international behavior. We illustrate the framework with examples from China's approach to climate change, trade and exchange rates, Internet governance, territorial sovereignty, arms control, and humanitarian intervention. Finally, we conclude by considering what alternative versions of international order might emerge as China's influence grows.
Background: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are often misdiagnosed and mismanaged. Disease state stewardship initiatives targeting UTIs through the development of institutional guidelines and real-time prospective audit and feedback (PAAF) on provider management may have a significant impact on the overuse of antimicrobials. Objective: Our study evaluated the effectiveness of a UTI focused disease state stewardship intervention by assessing institutional guideline adherence before and after implementation. Methods: This retrospective quasi-experimental study was conducted at a tertiary-care academic medical center. Patients >18 years of age receiving antimicrobials for a UTI were included. A previously performed retrospective review of UTI management from September-November 2017 was used as the baseline. The UTI management guideline was implemented in July 2018, and service lines were educated. A PAAF initiative began in June 2019, whereby the antimicrobial stewardship team performed daily reviews of patients receiving antimicrobials for UTIs. Data was collected on their management, and providers were contacted in real time with recommendations based on the institutional guideline. Patients reviewed June–October 2019 were included in the postimplementation analysis. Patients were excluded if they were pregnant, underwent a urological procedure with risk of mucosal bleeding, or were an outside hospital transfer already on UTI therapy. The primary outcome of this study was to evaluate guideline adherence before and after the implementation of PAAF for the management of UTIs. Results: In total, 198 patients in the preintervention group and 246 in the PAAF group were included. The emergency department was the primary ordering service of urinalyses (60.1% vs 66.1%; P = .2287) in both periods and altered mental status as the main indication for testing (35.2% vs 31.3%; P = .5465). Treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria and pyuria decreased significantly between the 2 periods: 74.8% versus 36.2% (P = .0001). Appropriate ordering of urinalyses (33.8% vs 68.3%; P = .0001) and urine cultures (29.3% vs 61.0%; P = .0001) also improved in the PAAF group. Recommendations made during PAAF included therapy discontinuation (66.7%), antimicrobial therapy change (15.5%), or duration modification (15.5%), and 59.5% of first interventions were accepted. Overall guideline compliance significantly improved from 13.1% in the preintervention period to 26.1% in the PAAF period (P = .0011). Conclusions: A UTI disease state intervention was associated with significant reductions in the treatment of asymptomatic presentations as well as an improvement in overall guideline adherence. We believe that this approach represents a powerful stewardship strategy for decreasing unnecessary antimicrobial usage.
Intensified cover-cropping practices are increasingly viewed as a herbicide-resistance management tool but clear distinction between reactive and proactive resistance management performance targets is needed. We evaluated two proactive performance targets for integrating cover-cropping tactics, including (1) facilitation of reduced herbicide inputs and (2) reduced herbicide selection pressure. We conducted corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] field experiments in Pennsylvania and Delaware using synthetic weed seedbanks of horseweed [Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronquist] and smooth pigweed (Amaranthus hybridus L.) to assess winter and summer annual population dynamics, respectively. The effect of alternative cover crops was evaluated across a range of herbicide inputs. Cover crop biomass production ranged from 2,000 to 8,500 kg ha−1 in corn and 3,000 to 5,500 kg ha−1 in soybean. Experimental results demonstrated that herbicide-based tactics were the primary drivers of total weed biomass production, with cover-cropping tactics providing an additive weed-suppression benefit. Substitution of cover crops for PRE or POST herbicide programs did not reduce total weed control levels or cash crop yields but did result in lower net returns due to higher input costs. Cover-cropping tactics significantly reduced C. canadensis populations in three of four cover crop treatments and decreased the number of large rosettes (>7.6-cm diameter) at the time of preplant herbicide exposure. Substitution of cover crops for PRE herbicides resulted in increased selection pressure on POST herbicides, but reduced the number of large individuals (>10 cm) at POST applications. Collectively, our findings suggest that cover crops can reduce the intensity of selection pressure on POST herbicides, but the magnitude of the effect varies based on weed life-history traits. Additional work is needed to describe proactive resistance management concepts and performance targets for integrating cover crops so producers can apply these concepts in site-specific, within-field management practices.
I distinguish between two versions of the black hole information-loss paradox. The first arises from apparent failure of unitarity on the spacetime of a completely evaporating black hole, which appears to be non-globally hyperbolic; this is the most commonly discussed version of the paradox in the foundational and semipopular literature, and the case for calling it `paradoxical' is less than compelling. But the second arises from a clash between a fully statistical-mechanical interpretation of black hole evaporation and the quantum-field-theoretic description used in derivations of the Hawking effect. This version of the paradox arises long before a black hole completely evaporates, seems to be the version that has played a central role in quantum gravity, and is genuinely paradoxical. After explicating the paradox, I discuss the implications of more recent work on AdS/CFT duality and on the `Firewall paradox', and conclude that the paradox is if anything now sharper. The article is written at a (relatively) introductory level and does not assume advanced knowledge of quantum gravity.
In the first of the four chapters gathered together as Part II, Sean Field maintains that Agnes of Harcourt was “a leader in her world,” but then wonders: “was she an intellectual?” Towards the end of the chapter, having unearthed a wider range of sources and textual witnesses than hitherto associated with Agnes, he affirms that she was “an important intellectual.” Agnes flourished at or near Paris, and Parisian academics of our own time would have fewer hesitations in recognizing her status as an intellectual than their Anglo-American counterparts, since “the terms ‘intellectual/ intellectuals’,” Rita Copeland has argued,
… are still not accepted or used comfortably in all quarters. The terms have found a more secure usage among French and other continental historians of the Middle Ages than among Anglo-American historians of medieval English universities.
Mention of “universities” here invites us to consider a peculiarity of Paris: that university, royal court, and commercial city were all gathered at one site, whereas in England (particularly) and elsewhere this was not often the case. Jacques Le Goff has associated “the appearance of the intellectual as a distinct social type in the twelfth century” with the appearance of towns, and in a city such as Paris there is scope for university learning to bleed into urban institutions (as it bleeds into Jean de Meun's unmistakably Parisian, secular continuation of the Roman de la Rose). But for the two Paris-identified women in Part II, Agnes de Harcourt and Christine de Pizan, it is sponsorship of the royal court that decisively enables their authorly work. Again, such an option was hardly on offer in England for literary authors, male or female. Chaucer and Gower tried to float the idea that royal personages might protect and encourage literati, with Chaucer placing his faith in queenly rather than kingly fictional surrogates. But there is scant support for royal-sponsored, institutional provision of literary learning in England before the monks of Sheen begin supplying the Bridgettine nuns of Syon with texts for perusal within private, enclosed spaces.
The National Institute of Health has mandated good clinical practice (GCP) training for all clinical research investigators and professionals. We developed a GCP game using the Kaizen-Education platform. The GCP Kaizen game was designed to help clinical research professionals immerse themselves into applying International Conference on Harmonization GCP (R2) guidelines in the clinical research setting through case-based questions.
Students were invited to participate in the GCP Kaizen game as part of their 100% online academic Masters during the Spring 2019 semester. The structure of the game consisted of 75 original multiple choice and 25 repeated questions stemming from fictitious vignettes that were distributed across 10 weeks. Each question presented a teachable rationale after the answers were submitted. At the end of the game, a satisfaction survey was issued to collect player satisfaction data on the game platform, content, experience as well as perceptions of GCP learning and future GCP concept application.
There were 71 total players who participated and answered at least one question. Of those, 53 (75%) answered all 100 questions. The game had a high Cronbach’s alpha, and item analyses provided information on question quality, thus assisting us in future quality edits before re-testing and wider dissemination.
The GCP Kaizen game provides an alternative method for mandated GCP training using principles of gamification. It proved to be a reliable and an effective educational method with high player satisfaction.
This paper presents the findings of a preliminary study comparing implementation of design changes using various computer-aided design (CAD) working styles. Our study compares individuals’ and pairs’ completion of a series of changes to a toy car CAD model. We discuss the results in terms of productivity and value added ratio, derived from time-based quantitative data. We also discuss qualitative findings acquired through post-study surveys. Overall, our findings suggest that pairs were less efficient than individual designers due to overheads like communication, history dependency and complex couplings within the CAD model tree. However, it is also noteworthy that within each pair the lead participant's performance was at par with individual participants. Lastly, we also discuss behaviors and patterns that emerge as unique to the synchronous collaborative environment, motivating future work.
Proactive integrated weed management (IWM) is critically needed in no-till production to reduce the intensity of selection pressure for herbicide-resistant weeds. Reducing the density of emerged weed populations and the number of larger individuals within the population at the time of herbicide application are two practical management objectives when integrating cover crops as a complementary tactic in herbicide-based production systems. We examined the following demographic questions related to the effects of alternative cover-cropping tactics following small grain harvest on preplant, burndown management of horseweed (Erigeron canadensis L.) in no-till commodity-grain production: (1) Do cover crops differentially affect E. canadensis density and size inequality at the time of herbicide exposure? (2) Which cover crop response traits are drivers of E. canadensis suppression at time of herbicide exposure? Interannual variation in growing conditions (study year) and intra-annual variation in soil fertility (low vs. high nitrogen) were the primary drivers of cover crop response traits and significantly affected E. canadensis density at the time of herbicide exposure. In comparison to the fallow control, cover crop treatments reduced E. canadensis density 52% to 86% at the time of a preplant, burndown application. Cereal rye (Secale cereale L.) alone or in combination with forage radish (Raphanus sativus L.) provided the most consistent E. canadensis suppression. Fall and spring cover crop biomass production was negatively correlated with E. canadensis density at the preplant burndown application timing. Our results also show that winter-hardy cover crops reduce the size inequality of E. canadensis populations at the time of herbicide exposure by reducing the number of large individuals within the population. Finally, we advocate for advancement in our understanding of complementarity between cover crop– and herbicide-based management tactics in no-till systems to facilitate development of proactive, herbicide-resistant management strategies.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The objectives for the Rigor, Reproducibility, and Transparency course within KAIZEN-Edu was to provide a platform that allows essential training, in a novel and customizable approach, for a large number of students across the multiple institutions within the UAB CCTS Partner Network. Successful implementation across this geographically diverse of partner institutions would serve as proof of concept to future dissemination across the CTSA consortium. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We used the “build a game” tools within Kaizen-Edu to design the “Rigor and Reproducibility Game.” The games consisted of four modules, with 20 questions designed to test participant knowledge, and edify learners on particular concepts through a multimedia approach (embedded video, text, and hyperlinks to articles) with content provided as questions released over 4 weeks. Researchers from across the UAB CCTS Partner Network developed comprehensive modules for (1) How Scientists Fool Themselves/Scientific Premise, (2) Authentication of Chemical and Biologic Resources and Sex and Other Biologic Variables, (3) Statistical Rigor, and (4) Comprehensive Review. A typical week began with review articles (1–2) sent to each participant. The participants are informed that 5 questions will be released midweek testing the key concepts from the papers. When ready, the participant logs into Kaizen-Edu and starts to answer questions/play the game. Immediately, the articles are opened for reference, followed by a brief 4–5 minute video which reinforces key concepts and then timed questions begin. A typical question is allowed 3 minutes (visible countdown clock). Accurate responses result in the addition of points, with double points awarded for correct answers within the questions time limit. No points are awarded for incorrect answers. After each question, a detailed explanation reviews and reinforces the key concepts. Each participants’ points contribute to both their individual score and team scores, which influences their position on the Rigor and Reproducibility game leaderboard. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Within 2017, the Rigor Reproducibility, and Transparency course was conducted 5 times. A total of 126 researchers across 9 institutions were enrolled. A total of 87 enrollees completed the full course, with 80% passing (answering ≥75% of questions correctly) on their first attempt and an additional 20% passing on a second attempt. The distribution of completers across the CCTS Network was UAB=48, Auburn=13, Pennington=10, University of Alabama=5, Hudson Alpha=5, Tulane=4, University of South Alabama=1, LSU=2, and Southern Research=1. Researchers throughout at Partner Institutions represent 46% of the total population trained. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: This software based, gamification-enhanced course was broadly accepted with each session fully enrolled, and learners spread almost evenly between our institution and various Partner Network sites. Our pilot proved that gamification was an effective technique to engage users and produced a high pass rate, suggesting that the content both engaged learners and was effectively internalized. Educational interventions, imbued with principles of gamification provide educators powerful tools that use competition and/or collaboration to disseminate knowledge, engage learners with content, and save educator time as created game content can be reused in additional educational sessions. Analyses of the data trail provided by users engaging with such electronic learning tools will provide educators will insights on how to maximize learning, opening the door to an era of educational analytics.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Background: Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show a broad range of unusual responses to sensory stimuli and experiences. It has been hypothesized that early differences in sensory responsiveness arise from atypical neural function and produce “cascading effects” on development across a number of domains, impacting social and communication skill, as well as broader development in children affected by ASD. A primary challenge to confirming these hypotheses is that ASD cannot be definitely diagnosed in the earliest stages of development (i.e., infancy). A potential solution is to prospectively follow infants at heightened risk for ASD based on their status as infant siblings of children who are diagnosed. We examined the developmental sequelae and possible neurophysiological substrates of three different patterns of sensory responsiveness—hyporesponsiveness (reduced or absent responding to sensory stimuli) and hyperresponsiveness (exaggerated responding to sensory stimuli), as well as sensory seeking (craving of or fascination with certain sensory experiences). Infants at high risk (HR) for ASD were compared with a control group of infants at relatively lower risk for ASD (LR; siblings of children with typical developmental histories). Objectives: Research questions included: (a) Do HR infants differ from LR infants in early sensory responsiveness?, (b) Does sensory responsiveness predict future ASD and related symptomatology? and (c) Is sensory responsiveness predicted by resting brain states? METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Methods: To answer these questions, we carried out a longitudinal correlational investigation in which 20 HR infants and 20 LR controls matched on sex and chronological age were followed over 18 months. At entry to the study, when infants were 18 months old, sensory responsiveness was measured using the Sensory Processing Assessment and the Sensory Experiences Questionnaire, and a number of putative neural signatures of early sensory differences were measured via resting state EEG. When infants were 24 and 36 months of age, ASD and related symptomatology was evaluated in a comprehensive diagnostic evaluation. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Results: HR infants trended towards increased hyporesponsiveness and hyperresponsiveness and showed significantly elevated levels of sensory seeking relative to LR controls at 18 months of age. Both groups, furthermore, displayed a high degree of heterogeneity in sensory responsiveness. Atypical sensory responsiveness (increased hyperresponsiveness and/or hyporesponsiveness, as well as sensory seeking behavior) predicted several aspects of ASD and related symptomatology, including social, communication, and play skill, and was associated with differences in resting brain state, including metrics of oscillatory power, complexity, and connectivity, as well as hemispheric asymmetry. Moderation analyses revealed that several relations varied according to risk group, such that associations were stronger in magnitude in the HR Versus LR group. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Conclusion: Findings provide empirical support for the notion that early sensory responsiveness may produce cascading effects on development in infants at heightened risk for ASD. Differences in resting brain states may underlie atypical behavioral patterns of sensory responsiveness. From a clinical standpoint, results suggest that early sensory differences may be useful for predicting developmental trajectories, and be potentially important targets for early preventive intervention, in infants at risk for autism.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Lung cancer claims 160,000 lives in the United States every year, and lung adenocarcinoma (LADC) is the most frequent type. Early diagnosis is crucial. Computed tomography (CT) is very sensitive in identifying early-stage lung nodules, but has low specificity. Increased glucose uptake is a hallmark of cancer measurable in vivo by fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron-emission tomography (PET). FDG PET is widely used for cancer staging but has low sensitivity in the diagnosis of solitary lung nodules. We have previously identified an alternative glucose transporter, SGLT2, expressed in different types of cancer but not detected by FDG PET. SGLT2 activity can be measured in vivo with the PET tracer methyl-4-fluorodeoxyglucose (Me4FDG). The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that SGLT2 is a novel diagnostic and therapeutic target in FDG-negative, early stage LADC. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: To study glucose transporter expression in LADC, we performed immunohistochemistry with SGLT2- and GLUT1-specific antibodies in human lung pre-malignant lesions and LADC samples. To verify the possibility of detecting SGLT2 activity in vivo, we performed microPET imaging with the SGLT-specific tracer Me4FDG in a Kras-driven, p53-null genetically engineered mouse model and in patient-derived xenografts of LADC. Finally, we performed therapeutic trials in genetically engineered and patient-derived mouse models of LADC with the FDA-approved SGLT2 inhibitor canagliflozin. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We observed a switch in the modality of glucose transport during lung carcinogenesis: SGLT2 was highly expressed in pre-malignant lesions and well-differentiated LADC, whereas GLUT1 was upregulated in advanced, poorly differentiated lesions. This pattern was observed both in human samples and in murine models. This observation led us to hypothesize that early-stage LADCs are often negative on FDG PET because this imaging modality does not detect the activity of SGLT2, which is expressed in early lesions. Therefore, we performed PET imaging with the tracer Me4FDG, that measures SGLT2 activity, in our mouse model, and observed that Me4FDG accumulated in small nodules that were negative with FDG. We confirmed the functionality of SGLT2 in human LADC by Me4FDG PET in patient-derived xenografts. To investigate the role of SGLT2-mediated glucose uptake in the early stages of LADC development, we treated both genetically engineered mice and patient-derived xenografts with FDA-approved SGLT2 inhibitors, showing that SGLT2 inhibition effectively reduced LADC growth and prolonged survival in mouse models. In addition, Me4FDG uptake predicted response to SGLT2 inhibition. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Our results show that sodium-dependent glucose transport is a critical metabolic supply strategy in the early stages of lung adenocarcinoma development, and that Me4FDG is a novel biomarker of early LADC and of SGLT-dependent tumor growth. The discovery of SGLT2 in LADC highlighted the need for a re-interpretation of FDG-negative lung nodules, which might rely on SGLT2 for glucose uptake, and therefore may be detected by the new tracer Me4FDG. We anticipate our findings will lead to clinical studies evaluating Me4FDG as a diagnostic tracer for solitary lung nodules and early LADC, and as a biomarker for the selection of patients eligible for treatment with SGLT2 inhibitors.
Survey results suggest that prolonged administration of prophylactic antibiotics is common after mastectomy with reconstruction. We determined utilization, predictors, and outcomes of postdischarge prophylactic antibiotics after mastectomy with or without immediate breast reconstruction.
Commercially insured women aged 18–64 years coded for mastectomy from January 2004 to December 2011 were included in the study. Women with a preexisting wound complication or septicemia were excluded.
Predictors of prophylactic antibiotics within 5 days after discharge were identified in women with 1 year of prior insurance enrollment; relative risks (RR) were calculated using generalized estimating equations.
Overall, 12,501 mastectomy procedures were identified; immediate reconstruction was performed in 7,912 of these procedures (63.3%). Postdischarge prophylactic antibiotics were used in 4,439 procedures (56.1%) with immediate reconstruction and 1,053 procedures (22.9%) without immediate reconstruction (P<.001). The antibiotics most commonly prescribed were cephalosporins (75.1%) and fluoroquinolones (11.1%). Independent predictors of postdischarge antibiotics were implant reconstruction (RR, 2.41; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.23–2.60), autologous reconstruction (RR, 2.17; 95% CI, 1.93–2.45), autologous reconstruction plus implant (RR, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.92–2.31), hypertension (RR, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.00–1.10), tobacco use (RR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.01–1.14), surgery at an academic hospital (RR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.07–1.21), and receipt of home health care (RR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.04–1.18). Postdischarge prophylactic antibiotics were not associated with SSI after mastectomy with or without immediate reconstruction (both P>.05).
Prophylactic postdischarge antibiotics are commonly prescribed after mastectomy; immediate reconstruction is the strongest predictor. Stewardship efforts in this population to limit continuation of prophylactic antibiotics after discharge are needed to limit antimicrobial resistance.
There is a narrative about the nature of asymmetry in time which can be caricatured like this. Firstly, there is our fundamental physics – if we are being really careful about it, this is the standard model or our preferred post-standard-model physics; in reality, in the practical cases we think about, it is more likely to be ordinary quantum mechanics or maybe even classical Hamiltonian dynamics. In any case, it is supposed to be the physics of the microconstituents of the world. And it is time-reversal invariant and shows no particular direction of time.
And secondly there is the observed world, which is full of various kinds of observed asymmetries: dynamical asymmetries, entropic asymmetries, causal, psychological asymmetries, and so on. And the general way we set the problem up is as a contradiction between what our physics says, which is that the world is time-reversal invariant, and what we see around us, which is not time-reversal invariant.
I want to suggest the advantages of a slightly more nuanced way of thinking about the problem. It is really not the case that all of physics, or even most of physics, or even very much of physics, frankly, is “fundamental” physics. In the middle – between the fundamental physics at the bottom, and the directly observed macro-world at the top – we have a huge range of what we might call higher-level (or “emergent”) dynamical systems, governed by higher-level dynamical equations. I am thinking of the equations of fluid dynamics; I am thinking of the Boltzmann equation that governs dilute gases and many similar systems; I am thinking of the Langevin equation and the Fokker–Planck equation that govern Brownian motion; I am thinking of the equations of radioactive decay. (In principle I am also thinking about all the various equations and rules of the higher sciences, but we can confine our attention here just to the panoply of different systems and different equations that we study in physics.)
Actual physics is a plethora of different dynamical systems governed by different sorts of laws. And if you look at those higher-level laws you find – not universally, but very frequently – that they have a whole range of properties which are not shared by the fundamental physics. I want to focus on two particular properties like this.
Resilience research has primarily focused on occupations that undergo a significant amount of stress, such as the military or trauma teams. In response, Britt, Shen, Sinclair, Grossman, and Klieger (2016) call for “future work on resilience to expand to include a wider cross section of workers and occupations” (p. 397). We suggest that viewing resilience through a personality strength lens will facilitate this expansion. Adopting a personality strength approach to resilience will more clearly (a) link the capacity for resilience to positive adaptation in the face of a broader range of stressors beyond objectively significant adversity and (b) open up new methods of investigating the demonstration of resilience.