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The story of the medieval Romance on the Iberian Peninsula is a bit more complicated than that we read in traditional histories of Spanish or Catalan literature. Hebrew and Arabic authors also wrote texts that could be classified as romances some years before the Castilian Grail and Amadís. These authors adapted the motifs of Arthurian or chivalric romance, combining them with the literary tropes and conventions familiar to them from Hebrew and Arabic traditions. Others, such as the anonymous author of Cavallero Zifar (Castilian, anonymous, ca. 1300) and Ramon Llull in his ecclesisastical Romance, Blaquerna (Catalan), transform the conventions of romance to suit their own ecclesiastical and spiritual purposes. In this way, if we imagine romance in Iberia less as a stable genre with a canon and more as a set of conventions and tropes that authors recombined in novel ways, we see it as a literary practice that crosses languages and religious groups, but that in some ways shares chivalric and literary values across these differences.
The paced auditory serial addition task (PASAT), in which subjects
hear a number-string and add the two most-recently heard numbers, is a
neuropsychological test sensitive to cerebral dysfunction. We mapped
the brain regions activated by the PASAT using positron emission
tomography (PET) and 15O-water to measure cerebral blood flow.
We parsed the PASAT by mapping sites activated by immediate repetition of
numbers and by repetition of the prior number after the presentation of the
next number in the series. The PASAT activated dispersed non-contiguous foci
in the superior temporal gyri, bifrontal and biparietal sites, the anterior
cingulate and bilateral cerebellar sites. These sites are consistent with
the elements of the task that include auditory perception and processing,
speech production, working memory, and attention. Sites mediating
addition were not identified. The extent of the sites activated during
the performance of the PASAT accounts for the sensitivity of this test
and justifies its use in a variety of seemingly disparate conditions.
(JINS, 2004, 10, 26–34.)
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