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During the first decade and a half of the development of the systems ecology paradigm (SEP) most research efforts were placed on learning about how the biophysical realms of ecosystems function and how simulation models could aid gaining that understanding. Missing from that research were the obvious connections of humans as components of ecosystems, not simply as controllers. In 1981 the US National Science Foundation (NSF) Programs Ecosystems Studies and Anthropology funded the South Turkana Ecosystem Project. It was the first time that an ecosystem study had included the human component as a full actor in an ecosystem. The NSF has since created the Dynamics of Coupled Natural and Human Systems program, the sole purpose of which is to fund these types of projects. The human side of SEP has grown in other directions as well including, agro-ecosystem ecology, understanding ecosystem services and effects of land fragmentation, Citizen Science, and providing guidance to the management of natural and human-dominated systems and the improvement of human welfare. Ongoing research has led to the realization that the human residents of the ecosystems under study can engage with research scientists to co-create knowledge about the operation of their own systems.
Ecosystem modeling, a pillar of the systems ecology paradigm (SEP), addresses questions such as, how much carbon and nitrogen are cycled within ecological sites, landscapes, or indeed the earth system? Or how are human activities modifying these flows? Modeling, when coupled with field and laboratory studies, represents the essence of the SEP in that they embody accumulated knowledge and generate hypotheses to test understanding of ecosystem processes and behavior. Initially, ecosystem models were primarily used to improve our understanding about how biophysical aspects of ecosystems operate. However, current ecosystem models are widely used to make accurate predictions about how large-scale phenomena such as climate change and management practices impact ecosystem dynamics and assess potential effects of these changes on economic activity and policy making. In sum, ecosystem models embedded in the SEP remain our best mechanism to integrate diverse types of knowledge regarding how the earth system functions and to make quantitative predictions that can be confronted with observations of reality. Modeling efforts discussed are the Century ecosystem model, DayCent ecosystem model, Grassland Ecosystem Model ELM, food web models, Savanna model, agent-based and coupled systems modeling, and Bayesian modeling.
Despite the substantial investment by Australian health authorities to improve the health of rural and remote communities, rural residents continue to experience health care access challenges and poorer health outcomes. Health literacy and community engagement are both considered critical in addressing these health inequities. However, the current focus on health literacy can place undue burdens of responsibility for healthcare on individuals from disadvantaged communities whilst not taking due account of broader community needs and healthcare expectations. This can also marginalize the influence of community solidarity and mobilization in effecting healthcare improvements.
The objective is to present a conceptual framework that describes community literacy, its alignment with health literacy, and its relationship to concepts of community engaged healthcare.
Community literacy aims to integrate community knowledge, skills and resources into the design, delivery and adaptation of healthcare policies, and services at regional and local levels, with the provision of primary, secondary, and tertiary healthcare that aligns to individual community contexts. A set of principles is proposed to support the development of community literacy. Three levels of community literacy education for health personnel have been described that align with those applied to health literacy for consumers. It is proposed that community literacy education can facilitate transformational community engagement. Skills acquired by health personnel from senior executives to frontline clinical staff, can also lead to enhanced opportunities to promote health literacy for individuals.
The integration of health and community literacy provides a holistic framework that has the potential to effectively respond to the diversity of rural and remote Australian communities and their healthcare needs and expectations. Further research is required to develop, validate, and evaluate the three levels of community literacy education and alignment to health policy, prior to promoting its uptake more widely.
We present a calibration component for the Murchison Widefield Array All-Sky Virtual Observatory (MWA ASVO) utilising a newly developed PostgreSQL database of calibration solutions. Since its inauguration in 2013, the MWA has recorded over 34 petabytes of data archived at the Pawsey Supercomputing Centre. According to the MWA Data Access policy, data become publicly available 18 months after collection. Therefore, most of the archival data are now available to the public. Access to public data was provided in 2017 via the MWA ASVO interface, which allowed researchers worldwide to download MWA uncalibrated data in standard radio astronomy data formats (CASA measurement sets or UV FITS files). The addition of the MWA ASVO calibration feature opens a new, powerful avenue for researchers without a detailed knowledge of the MWA telescope and data processing to download calibrated visibility data and create images using standard radio astronomy software packages. In order to populate the database with calibration solutions from the last 6 yr we developed fully automated pipelines. A near-real-time pipeline has been used to process new calibration observations as soon as they are collected and upload calibration solutions to the database, which enables monitoring of the interferometric performance of the telescope. Based on this database, we present an analysis of the stability of the MWA calibration solutions over long time intervals.
We demonstrate an application evaluating carbon sequestration benefits from federal policy alternatives. Using detailed forest inventory data, we projected carbon sequestration outcomes in the coterminous 48 states for a baseline scenario and three policy scenarios through 2050. Alternatives included (1) reducing deforestation from development, (2) afforestation in the eastern United States and reforestation in the western United States, and (3) reducing stand-replacing wildfires. We used social cost of carbon estimates to evaluate the present value of carbon sequestration benefits gained with each policy. Results suggest that afforestation and reforestation would provide the greatest marginal increase in carbon benefit, far exceeding policy cost.
We describe the motivation and design details of the ‘Phase II’ upgrade of the Murchison Widefield Array radio telescope. The expansion doubles to 256 the number of antenna tiles deployed in the array. The new antenna tiles enhance the capabilities of the Murchison Widefield Array in several key science areas. Seventy-two of the new tiles are deployed in a regular configuration near the existing array core. These new tiles enhance the surface brightness sensitivity of the array and will improve the ability of the Murchison Widefield Array to estimate the slope of the Epoch of Reionisation power spectrum by a factor of ∼3.5. The remaining 56 tiles are deployed on long baselines, doubling the maximum baseline of the array and improving the array u, v coverage. The improved imaging capabilities will provide an order of magnitude improvement in the noise floor of Murchison Widefield Array continuum images. The upgrade retains all of the features that have underpinned the Murchison Widefield Array’s success (large field of view, snapshot image quality, and pointing agility) and boosts the scientific potential with enhanced imaging capabilities and by enabling new calibration strategies.
The hard-core model has attracted much attention across several disciplines, representing lattice gases in statistical physics and independent sets in discrete mathematics and computer science. On finite graphs, we are given a parameter λ, and an independent set I arises with probability proportional to λ|I|. On infinite graphs a Gibbs measure is defined as a suitable limit with the correct conditional probabilities, and we are interested in determining when this limit is unique and when there is phase coexistence, i.e., existence of multiple Gibbs measures.
It has long been conjectured that on ℤ2 this model has a critical value λc ≈ 3.796 with the property that if λ < λc then it exhibits uniqueness of phase, while if λ > λc then there is phase coexistence. Much of the work to date on this problem has focused on the regime of uniqueness, with the state of the art being recent work of Sinclair, Srivastava, Štefankovič and Yin showing that there is a unique Gibbs measure for all λ < 2.538. Here we explore the other direction and prove that there are multiple Gibbs measures for all λ > 5.3506. We also show that with the methods we are using we cannot hope to replace 5.3506 with anything below 4.8771.
Our proof begins along the lines of the standard Peierls argument, but we add two innovations. First, following ideas of Kotecký and Randall, we construct an event that distinguishes two boundary conditions and always has long contours associated with it, obviating the need to accurately enumerate short contours. Second, we obtain improved bounds on the number of contours by relating them to a new class of self-avoiding walks on an oriented version of ℤ2.
In September 2016, the annual meeting of the International Union for Quaternary Research’s Loess and Pedostratigraphy Focus Group, traditionally referred to as a LoessFest, met in Eau Claire, Wisconsin, USA. The 2016 LoessFest focused on “thin” loess deposits and loess transportation surfaces. This LoessFest included 75 registered participants from 10 countries. Almost half of the participants were from outside the United States, and 18 of the participants were students. This review is the introduction to the special issue for Quaternary Research that originated from presentations and discussions at the 2016 LoessFest. This introduction highlights current understanding and ongoing work on loess in various regions of the world and provides brief summaries of some of the current approaches/strategies used to study loess deposits.
Our primary goal was to decrease time to resolution of postoperative chylothorax as demonstrated by total days of chest tube utilisation through development and implementation of a management protocol.
A chylothorax management protocol was implemented as a quality improvement project at a tertiary-care paediatric hospital in July, 2015. Retrospective analysis was completed on patients aged 0–17 years diagnosed with chylothorax within 30 days of cardiac surgery in a pre-protocol cohort (February, 2014 to June, 2015, n=20) and a post-protocol cohort (July, 2015 to March, 2016, n=22).
Measurements and results
Patient characteristics were similar before and after protocol implementation. Duration of mechanical ventilation and cardiac ICU and hospital lengths of stay were unchanged between cohorts. Following protocol implementation, total duration of chest tube utilisation decreased from 12 to 7 days (p=0.047) with a decrease in maximum days of chest tube utilisation from 44 to 13 days. Duration of medium-chain triglyceride feeds decreased from 42 days to 31 days (p=0.01). In total, three patients in the post-protocol cohort underwent additional surgical procedures to treat chylothorax with subsequent resolution of chylothorax within 24 hours. There were no chest tube re-insertions or re-admissions related to chylothorax in either the pre- or post-protocol cohorts. Protocol compliance was 81%.
Adoption of a chylothorax management protocol is feasible, and in our small cohort of patients implementation led to a significant decrease in the duration of chest tube utilisation, while eliminating practice variability among providers.
We describe the design and performance of the Engineering Development Array, which is a low-frequency radio telescope comprising 256 dual-polarisation dipole antennas working as a phased array. The Engineering Development Array was conceived of, developed, and deployed in just 18 months via re-use of Square Kilometre Array precursor technology and expertise, specifically from the Murchison Widefield Array radio telescope. Using drift scans and a model for the sky brightness temperature at low frequencies, we have derived the Engineering Development Array’s receiver temperature as a function of frequency. The Engineering Development Array is shown to be sky-noise limited over most of the frequency range measured between 60 and 240 MHz. By using the Engineering Development Array in interferometric mode with the Murchison Widefield Array, we used calibrated visibilities to measure the absolute sensitivity of the array. The measured array sensitivity matches very well with a model based on the array layout and measured receiver temperature. The results demonstrate the practicality and feasibility of using Murchison Widefield Array-style precursor technology for Square Kilometre Array-scale stations. The modular architecture of the Engineering Development Array allows upgrades to the array to be rolled out in a staged approach. Future improvements to the Engineering Development Array include replacing the second stage beamformer with a fully digital system, and to transition to using RF-over-fibre for the signal output from first stage beamformers.
Weed-free field experiments were conducted to evaluate soybean injury, growth, and yield following PRE or POST pyroxasulfone application. Soybean was injured 1 and 15% following pyroxasulfone PRE and POST application, respectively, 7 d after treatment (DAT). Injury following PRE and POST application was observed as delayed emergence and leaf necrosis and crinkling, respectively. Injury ranged from 0 to 6% following both application timings 14 and 28 DAT. Soybean was injured 5% or less following 60, 120, 180, 240, and 300 g ha−1 of pyroxasulfone. Soybean plant population, height, and yield were not affected by pyroxasulfone application timing. Only 300 g ha−1 of pyroxasulfone reduced soybean plant population to 90% of the nontreated 30 d after PRE. Pyroxasulfone rate did not influence soybean heights and yield. Data indicates that pyroxasulfone can safely be applied to soybean without a detrimental effect on plant growth or yield.
The Patient Reported Outcomes Burdens and Experiences (PROBE) questionnaire was developed with direct patient involvement in questionnaire design, conduct and analysis using patient-centered outcomes to assess health status in patients with hemophilia (PWH). Phase 1 confirmed robustness of the methodology and feasibility. Phase 2a investigated individual test-retest reliability. Phase 2b will explore population level reproducibility.
PWH and non-PWH individuals who attended a hemophilia-related workshop were asked to complete the PROBE questionnaire 3 times (paper-based survey on 2 consecutive days and then a web-based version). Test-retest reliability was analyzed using the percentage agreement and Kappa statistic. Kappa coefficient interpretation .81-1.00 almost perfect, .61- .80 substantial; .41- .60 moderate; .21 -.40 fair; .00 -.20, slight; and < .00 poor agreement.
Sixty-three participants from twenty-one countries were enrolled with a median age of 50 (range 14–76) years. Of these, thirty (47.6 percent) were PWH or carriers, thirty-three (52.5 percent) were participants with no known bleeding disorders. On general health domain, Kappa coefficients ranged from .69 to .92, indicating substantial to almost perfect agreement, for all items. Reliability of the web-based questionnaire showed moderate to substantial agreement for all except one item. For the hemophilia-related domain, Kappa coefficients ranged from .5-1.0. Of these, five of eleven items were in perfect agreement (Kappa = 1.0). Reliability of web-based questionnaire items were in substantial to almost perfect agreement. For overall health related quality of life, the EuroQol five dimensions questionnaire (EQ-5D) had Kappa coefficients of .62 to .92. Intraclass correlation coefficient of visual analog scale (VAS) was .90 (95 percent Confidence Interval, CI; .83-.94). Test-retest reliability was comparable between hemophilia patients and participants with no known bleed.
Phase 2a demonstrated individual test-retest reliability and suggests PROBE is a reliable tool to assess Patient Reported Outcomes in PWH. The Web-based questionnaire has an acceptable agreement with the standard paper-based version in all domains. PROBE Phase 2b, to demonstrate reproducibility at the population level, is on-going. To date, 1,039 participants have been recruited from 10 countries.
High temperature solid state sodium (23Na) magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR spin lattice relaxation times (T1) were evaluated for a series of NASICON (Na3Zr2PSi2O12) materials to directly determine Na jump rates. Simulations of the T1 temperature variations that incorporated distributions in Na jump activation energies, or distribution of jump rates, improved the agreement with experiment. The 23Na NMR T1 relaxation results revealed that distributions in the Na dynamics were present for all of the NASICON materials investigated here. The 23Na relaxation experiments also showed that small differences in material composition and/or changes in the processing conditions impacted the distributions in the Na dynamics. The extent of the distribution was related to the presence of a disordered or glassy phosphate phase present in these different sol-gel processed materials. The 23Na NMR T1 relaxation experiments are a powerful tool to directly probing Na jump dynamics and provide additional molecular level details that could impact transport phenomena.
Letters of news first acquired credibility by adapting themselves to the canons of sociability and honour. Letters of news were exchanged sociably among gentle Englishmen and guaranteed as credible by their honour as gentleman; the very act of news exchange constituted part of their mutual recognition of one another's gentility. The canons of sociable newswriting, from known correspondent to known recipient, therefore emphasized eyewitness detail as a way to provide sociable credibility. Sociable newsreading, in turn, emphasized friendly partiality, steady judgment, and public-spirited concern for the commonwealth. Gentle newswriters and newsreaders proved their worthiness to write and read the news by their provision of credible news and by their proper judgment of the credibility of the news.
The letter was the primary form of intra-governmental communication of military news, and it was by the letter, conveyed discreetly through England's sophisticated, dense, and largely uncensored networks of manuscript copying and circulation, that military news first burst the bounds of government. The letter's ambiguous ability to be used for both public and private communication made it the natural vehicle for this transformation. A letter written to the government could be easily copied and redirected to a private recipient, with only minimal changes to the body of news conveyed. The era's fuzzy dividing line between public and private life further facilitated the slippage of newsletters into ‘private’ correspondence. The form of the letter facilitated this transformation, whether at the desire of the government or by the desire of private recipients of news.
It is crucial to note that both desires operated at once. Government agents – from high courtiers to merchants abroad – were called upon by the government to dispense news as a form of propaganda, shaping the populace's desires either to match or to change the government's policy. Where there was governmental consensus, a proclamation would serve to inform public opinion and encourage it to endorse a unified government policy: needless excitement of the masses was never a preferred government goal.
Elizabethan and early Stuart England saw the prevailing medium for transmitting military news shift from public ritual, through private letters, to public newspapers. Randall argues that the development of written news required new standards of credibility for the information to be believable. Whereas ritual news established credibility through public performance, letters circulated sociably between private gentlemen relied on the honour of the gentle author. With the rise of anonymous pamphlets and corantos (early newspapers) at the beginning of the seventeenth century, a still-existing standard of credibility developed which was based on individuals reading multiple, anonymous texts. Through examination of diaries from the period, Randall discovers that this standard quickly gained authority. This shift in epistemological authority mirrored a wider alteration in social and political power from an individual monarch first to a gentle elite and then to a newsreading public in the hundred years leading up to the British civil wars. This study is based on a close examination of hundreds of manuscript news letters, printed pamphlets and corantos, and news diaries which are in holdings in the US and the UK.
Shapin has shown that in the world of science the advance of knowledge depended on a calculated and courteous imprecision, where the preservation of the honour of disagreeing scientists occasionally of necessity took precedence over the rigorous discourtesy of precisely established truth. The world of commercial news, in contrast, faced a situation where the sociable community excluded it from credibility. In news, courtesy and the new form of news were in direct conflict. Sociable military news had been born with the assumption that honour and credibility were tied – that an honour-based system of credibility was both the ideal and possible. Defamiliarized and commercial military news had adopted a standard which based credibility upon the intensive reading of the texts of news, but, in the last analysis, these texts attempted to ape the traditional guarantees of honour, and so still acknowledged honour as the ultimate guarantor of credibility. Now, in a second stage of transformation, the news would cut its ties to the traditional standards of credibility. Defamiliarized, commercial, printed military news could never compete on equal terms with its rivals if it accepted the postulates of honour; it could only weakly, and ultimately ineffectively, imitate them. The new form of news therefore had to undertake a radical assault on the assumptions of honour and sociability, separating them from credibility, so as to compete – even to triumph – over their predecessors. The establishment of a new standard of credibility was necessary to make possible the assertion that any anonymous, vulgar newswriter was as capable of telling the truth as the noblest lord of England. The adoption of this new credibility standard by English news-writers and English newsreaders – the examination and comparison of multiple, presumptively dishonourable texts according to the standard of extensive credibility – begun in the late sixteenth century, accelerated enormously with the introduction of corantos in the late 1610s and early 1620s, and was remarkably complete by 1637.