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Palliative care (PC) is patient and family-centered supportive care intended to improve symptom management, reduce caregiver burden, coordinate care, and improve quality of life for patients diagnosed with serious illness. Optimally, PC is begun close to initial diagnosis and delivered in synchrony with disease-specific treatment until symptom relief or patient death. The purpose of this study was to examine cancer survivors’ knowledge and perceptions of PC using a nationally representative sample of US adults from the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS).
A total of 593 HINTS respondents reported a personal history of cancer and were included in the sample (55.56% female; mean age of 65.88 years, SD = 18.21; mean time from diagnosis 13.83 years, SD = 18.21). Weighted logistic regression models were conducted to identify correlates of PC knowledge.
Of the 593 cancer survivors in the sample, 66% (N = 378) reported that they had never heard of PC, 18% (N = 112) reported knowing a little bit about PC, and 17% (N = 95) reported knowing what PC is and could explain it to someone else. In multivariable analysis, survivors of color (Hispanic/Latino, Black, Asian, American Indian, and Pacific Islander), males, and those less educated were significantly less likely to report knowledge of PC. Among survivors who did report knowledge of PC, a lack of distinction between differing modes of supportive care exists.
Significance of results
These findings suggest a need to increase PC knowledge among cancer survivors with the ultimate goal of addressing disparities in PC acceptance and utilization.
Research on marital quality and child well-being is currently limited by its common use of geographically constrained, homogenous, and often cross-sectional (or at least temporally limited) samples. We build upon previous work showing multiple trajectories of marital quality and data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-1979 (NLSY79) regarding mothers and their children (inclusive of ages 5–14). We examine how indicators of child well-being are linked to parental trajectories of marital quality (happiness, communication, and conflict). Results showed children whose parents had consistently poor marital quality over the life course exhibited more internalizing and externalizing problems, poorer health, lower quality home environments, and lower math and vocabulary scores than children of parents in consistently higher-quality marriages. Group differences remained stable over time for child health, home environment, and vocabulary scores. Group differences for internalizing problems declined over time, whereas group differences increased for externalizing problems and math scores. Initial advantages for females across nearly all indicators of child well-being tended to shrink over time, with boys often moving slightly ahead by mid adolescence. We discuss the implications of these findings in regard to children's development and well-being and suggest treating marriage as a monolithic construct betrays important variation within marriage itself.
Emotion can influence various cognitive processes. Communication with children often involves exaggerated emotional expressions and emotive language. Children with autism spectrum disorder often show a reduced tendency to attend to emotional information. Typically developing children aged 7 to 9 years who varied in their level of autism-like traits learned the nonsense word names of nine novel toys, which were presented with either happy, fearful, or neutral emotional cues. Emotional cues had no influence on word recognition or recall performance. Eye-tracking data showed differences in visual attention depending on the type of emotional cues and level of autism-like traits. The findings suggest that the influence of emotion on attention during word learning differs according to whether the children have lower or higher levels of autism-like traits, but this influence does not affect word learning outcomes.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: This project seeks to identify unique host responses that are biomarkers for specific urethral pathogens, and which can be used in the development of point-of-care (POC) STI diagnostics. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: How Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and other common STIs, e.g. Neisseria gonorrhoeae, evade immunity and elicit pathology in the male urethra is poorly understood. Our objective is to determine how STI-infected urethral epithelial cells, as well as the uninfected ‘bystander’ cells with which infected cells communicate, respond to CT and other STIs. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We evaluated how immortalized urethral cell lines - including transduced human urethral epithelial cells (THUECs) - respond to increasing doses of CT infectious particles using in vitro one-step progeny assays performed in the presence or absence of cycloheximide, a drug that inhibits eukaryotic protein synthesis. We will perform concurrent single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) and multiplex cytokine analyses to determine how different CT doses impact the transcriptomes of infected and bystander urethral epithelial cells and modulate cytokine production of the overall monolayer. Results of these experiments will inform the feasibility of performing similar analyses in situ using urethral swabs from men with clinically diagnosed urethritis. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Our results demonstrate that immune-competent urethral cell monolayers strongly resist CT infection, unless most of the cells are simultaneously infected. This suggests that uninfected bystander cells sense CT-infected cells and secrete soluble factors that may act to limit CT proliferation in infected cells and to inform remaining uninfected cells that a potential pathogen is present. We anticipate that our scRNA-seq and cytokine analyses will identify both specific effector pathways that protect against CT and intracellular signals that modulate them. We speculate that these pathways and signals may differ during infection with CT and other STIs. Importantly, we anticipate that our in vitro model of CT infection will be highly representative of in situ immune responses observed in urethras of infected men. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: In men, common STIs including CT are usually managed syndromically due to a lack of POC diagnostics. By determining how STIs elicit urethral inflammation and identifying countermeasures that STIs use to evade urethral immunity, we can identify host responses that serve as biomarkers for urethritis, generally, and for specific urethral pathogens.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: Our research focuses on determining rural-urban disparities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) management to improve COPD health outcomes in rural areas. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Several methods exist to distinguish rural from urban areas, but it is not clear which method relates most directly to rural-urban health care disparities. To address this, we compared different measures of rurality to measures of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) processes of care among a national sample of veterans. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Retrospective analysis of patients with COPD (2016-2019 by ICD-10 codes) using national Veterans Affairs (VA) data. We assessed rurality by: 1) patient’s residential address, 2) assigned primary care clinic address, and 3) drive time from the patient’s residence to closest primary care clinic. Rurality designations of the residential address and primary care clinic address into urban, rural, and highly rural areas are based on the Rural Urban Commuting Area (RUCA) codes. The dependent variables were binary outcomes of: 1) documentation of a pulmonary clinic encounter and 2) evidence of spirometry to confirm the diagnosis of COPD. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Of 6,765,951 veterans, 1,157,002 (17%) had COPD (Table 1). Although approximately 40% of patients with COPD reside in addresses that are rural and highly rural, a large majority are assigned to primary care clinics in urban areas (82.8%) and reside within 30 minutes to the closest primary care clinic (76.7%) (Table 2). Compared to defining rurality based on patient’s residential address or drive time to closest primary care, defining rurality based on the assigned primary care clinic address was associated with a larger disparity in rates of pulmonary encounter. In contrast, the drive time from the patient’s residence to the closest primary care was the strongest predictor of receipt of spirometry (Figure 1 and Table 3). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: Estimates of the severity of rural-urban disparities varied based on the definition of rurality used. For two process measures, definitions of rurality based on where the patient received primary care generated more evidence of disparities than definitions based solely on the patient’s residential address.
Benzodiazepine (BZD) prescription rates have increased over the past decade in the United States. Available literature indicates that sociodemographic factors may influence diagnostic patterns and/or prescription behaviour. Herein, the aim of this study is to determine whether the gender of the prescriber and/or patient influences BZD prescription.
Cross-sectional study using data from the Florida Medicaid Managed Medical Assistance Program from January 1, 2018 to December 31, 2018. Eligible recipients ages 18 to 64, inclusive, enrolled in the Florida Medicaid plan for at least 1 day, and were dually eligible. Recipients either had a serious mental illness (SMI), or non-SMI and anxiety.
Total 125 463 cases were identified (i.e., received BZD or non-BZD prescription). Main effect of patient and prescriber gender was significant F(1, 125 459) = 0.105, P = 0 .745, partial η2 < 0.001. Relative risk (RR) of male prescribers prescribing a BZD compared to female prescribers was 1.540, 95% confidence intervals (CI) [1.513, 1.567], whereas the RR of male patients being prescribed a BZD compared to female patients was 1.16, 95% CI [1.14, 1.18]. Main effects of patient and prescriber gender were statistically significant F(1, 125 459) = 188.232, P < 0.001, partial η2 = 0.001 and F(1, 125 459) = 349.704, P < 0.001, partial η2 = 0.013, respectively.
Male prescribers are more likely to prescribe BZDs, and male patients are more likely to receive BZDs. Further studies are required to characterize factors that influence this gender-by-gender interaction.
Elective surgical patients routinely bathe with chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) at home days prior to their procedures. However, the impact of home CHG bathing on surgical site CHG concentration is unclear. We examined 3 different methods of applying CHG and hypothesized that different application methods would impact resulting CHG skin concentration.
The United Nations 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development sets a framework of universal Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) to address challenges to society and the planet. Island invasive species eradications have well-documented benefits that clearly align with biodiversity conservation-related SDGs, yet the value of this conservation action for socioeconomic benefits is less clear. We examine the potential for island invasive vertebrate eradications to have ecological and socioeconomic benefits. Specifically, we examine: (1) how SDGs may have been achieved through past eradications; and (2) how planned future eradications align with SDGs and associated targets. We found invasive vertebrate eradication to align with 13 SDGs and 42 associated targets encompassing marine and terrestrial biodiversity conservation, promotion of local and global partnerships, economic development, climate change mitigation, human health and sanitation and sustainable production and consumption. Past eradications on 794 islands aligned with a median of 17 targets (range 13–38) by island. Potential future eradications on 292 highly biodiverse islands could align with a median of 25 SDG targets (range 15–39) by island. This analysis enables the global community to explicitly describe the contributions that invasive vertebrate management on islands can make towards implementing the global sustainable development agenda.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: This project seeks to understand how personalized medicine can optimize care for patients with colorectal cancer. It identifies opportunities for personalized medicine to improve clinical outcomes, and uses cost-effectiveness analysis to assess the clinical and financial impact of this approach. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: This project uses two methods to understand the impact of personalized medicine. First, this project has used SEER-Medicare data in conjunction with Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium guidelines to identify medications used by patients with colorectal cancer that can be impacted by genetic variants. This data will then be combined with population genetic variant rates to understand the likely impact screening for a given variant will have on medication response and adverse events. Medication use frequencies and genetic variant rates are then used to populate cost-effectiveness models that simulate the clinical and financial outcomes, identifying optimal genes to screen. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: The first result will be a comprehensive overview of treatment patterns for patients with colorectal cancer in the United States, as well as the treatments used for disease-induced comorbidities. The second result will be the identification of genetic variants based on population rates and medication utilization that should be screened in this patient population. The final result will be a breakdown of the clinical and financial outcomes associated with implementing screening for the identified genes. Preliminary results from a two-gene cost-effectiveness analysis demonstrates that screening for variants in those genes improves both clinical and financial outcomes. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: This project demonstrates how current treatment approaches can be optimized via personalized medicine. It uses epidemiological methods to identify opportunities to integrate genetic findings from other diseases, and uses cost-effectiveness analysis to understand the impact of transforming care. CONFLICT OF INTEREST DESCRIPTION: Stocks-Aurinia, Syndax, Adaptimmune, Rigel pharma
Constitutional drafters often look to foreign constitutional models, ideas, and texts for inspiration; many are explicit about their foreign borrowing. However, when implemented domestically, the meaning of borrowed elements often changes. Political scientists and scholars of comparative constitutional law have analyzed the transnational movement of constitutional ideas and norms, but the political processes through which the meaning of foreign provisions might be refashioned remain understudied. Sociolegal scholars have examined the “transplantation” and “translation” of laws and legal institutions, but they rarely scrutinize this process in the context of constitutions. Drawing on an examination of borrowed constitutional elements in four cases (Pakistan, Morocco, Egypt, Israel), this article builds on research in comparative politics, comparative constitutional law, and sociolegal studies to provide a nuanced picture of deliberate efforts to import “inclusive” constitutional provisions regarding religion-state relations while, at the same time, refashioning the meaning of those provisions in ways that “exclude” specific forms of religious, sectarian, doctrinal, or ideological diversity. Building on sociolegal studies regarding the translation of law, we argue that foreign constitutional elements embraced by politically embedded actors are often treated as “empty signifiers” with meanings that are deliberately transformed. Tracing the processes that lead political actors to engage foreign constitutional elements, even if they have no intention of transplanting their prior meaning, we highlight the need for detailed case studies to reveal both the international and the national dynamics that shape and reshape the meaning of constitutions today.
Many institutions are attempting to implement patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures. Because PROs often change clinical workflows significantly for patients and providers, implementation choices can have major impact. While various implementation guides exist, a stepwise list of decision points covering the full implementation process and drawing explicitly on a sociotechnical conceptual framework does not exist.
To facilitate real-world implementation of PROs in electronic health records (EHRs) for use in clinical practice, members of the EHR Access to Seamless Integration of Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Consortium developed structured PRO implementation planning tools. Each institution pilot tested the tools. Joint meetings led to the identification of critical sociotechnical success factors.
Three tools were developed and tested: (1) a PRO Planning Guide summarizes the empirical knowledge and guidance about PRO implementation in routine clinical care; (2) a Decision Log allows decision tracking; and (3) an Implementation Plan Template simplifies creation of a sharable implementation plan. Seven lessons learned during implementation underscore the iterative nature of planning and the importance of the clinician champion, as well as the need to understand aims, manage implementation barriers, minimize disruption, provide ample discussion time, and continuously engage key stakeholders.
Highly structured planning tools, informed by a sociotechnical perspective, enabled the construction of clear, clinic-specific plans. By developing and testing three reusable tools (freely available for immediate use), our project addressed the need for consolidated guidance and created new materials for PRO implementation planning. We identified seven important lessons that, while common to technology implementation, are especially critical in PRO implementation.
Impairment in financial capacity is an early sign of cognitive decline and functional impairment in late life. Cognitive impairments such as executive dysfunction are well documented in late-life major depression; however, little progress has been made in assessing associations of these impairments with financial incapacity.
Participants included 95 clinically depressed and 41 nondepressed older adults without dementia. Financial capacity (assessed with the Managing Money scale of the Independent Living Scale), cognitive functioning (comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation), and depression severity (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale – 24) were assessed. T tests were used to assess group differences. Linear regression was used to analyze data.
Depressed participants performed significantly lower on financial capacity (t = 2.98, p < .01). Among depressed participants, executive functioning (B = .24, p < .05) was associated with reduced financial capacity, controlling for age, gender, education, depression severity, and other cognitive domains.
Our results underscore the importance of assessing financial capacity in older depressed adults as they are likely vulnerable to financial abuse even in the absence of dementia. It will be valuable to assess whether treatment for depression is an effective intervention to improve outcomes.
Use latent class analysis (LCA) to identify patterns of cognitive functioning in a sample of older adults with clinical depression and without dementia and assess demographic, psychiatric, and neurobiological predictors of class membership.
Neuropsychological assessment data from 121 participants in the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative-Depression project (ADNI-D) were analyzed, including measures of executive functioning, verbal and visual memory, visuospatial and language functioning, and processing speed. These data were analyzed using LCA, with predictors of class membership such as depression severity, depression and treatment history, amyloid burden, and APOE e4 allele also assessed.
A two-class model of cognitive functioning best fit the data, with the Lower Cognitive Class (46.1% of the sample) performing approximately one standard deviation below the Higher Cognitive Class (53.9%) on most tests. When predictors of class membership were assessed, carrying an APOE e4 allele was significantly associated with membership in the Lower Cognitive Class. Demographic characteristics, age of depression onset, depression severity, history of psychopharmacological treatment for depression, and amyloid positivity did not predict class membership.
LCA allows for identification of subgroups of cognitive functioning in a mostly cognitively intact late life depression (LLD) population. One subgroup, the Lower Cognitive Class, more likely to carry an APOE e4 allele, may be at a greater risk for subsequent cognitive decline, even though current performance on neuropsychological testing is within normal limits. These findings have implications for early identification of those at greatest risk, risk factors, and avenues for preventive intervention.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection can lead to reproductive morbidity in women. Animal models suggest that protection against CT is mediated through the cytokine interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), produced by CD4+ T-cells, which clears CT through intracellular tryptophan depletion. In humans, correlates of protection remain to be elucidated, which hinders chlamydia vaccine development. Natural clearance of CT infection (e.g., clearance before antibiotics) may be an immunological correlate of protection, evidenced by (1) CT clearance without antibiotics; and (2) a 4-fold reduced risk of CT reinfection within 6 months. We have identified women with and without natural clearance of CT infection. By comparing these two groups of women, the role of IFN-γ-mediated natural clearance of CT infection will be investigated. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Through collaboration with a cohort study of CT-infected women, we have access to stored specimens from women who naturally cleared CT or had persisting CT infection. Using peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC), we will assess whether natural clearance of CT infection is associated with IFN-γ-producing CD4+ T-cells by stimulating PBMC ex vivo with CT antigens using intracellular cytokine staining. We will also use cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) and untargeted High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry to assess for tryptophan-dependent and -independent metabolic pathways associated with natural clearance of CT infection. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS:: To date, IFN-γ has been measured in 10 women who did not clear CT infection, demonstrating that <20% of these women produced significant levels of IFN-γ. Women who naturally cleared CT have yet to be studied. Untargeted HPLC-MS has been performed on 6 women (3 who cleared matched to 3 with persisting CT infection). To date, 11 pathways that are significantly associated with natural clearance have been identified. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: The outcome of natural clearance of CT infection is distinct from women with persisting chlamydia. These studies may inform whether IFN-γ, produced by CD4+ T-cells, or tryptophan-dependent or -independent metabolic pathways are associated with natural clearance, which may advance chlamydia vaccine development.
Hill (Twin Research and Human Genetics, Vol. 21, 2018, 84–88) presented a critique of our recently published paper in Cell Reports entitled ‘Large-Scale Cognitive GWAS Meta-Analysis Reveals Tissue-Specific Neural Expression and Potential Nootropic Drug Targets’ (Lam et al., Cell Reports, Vol. 21, 2017, 2597–2613). Specifically, Hill offered several interrelated comments suggesting potential problems with our use of a new analytic method called Multi-Trait Analysis of GWAS (MTAG) (Turley et al., Nature Genetics, Vol. 50, 2018, 229–237). In this brief article, we respond to each of these concerns. Using empirical data, we conclude that our MTAG results do not suffer from ‘inflation in the FDR [false discovery rate]’, as suggested by Hill (Twin Research and Human Genetics, Vol. 21, 2018, 84–88), and are not ‘more relevant to the genetic contributions to education than they are to the genetic contributions to intelligence’.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Objectives and goals of this study will be to: (1) compare fecal microbiota and fecal organic acids in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients and controls and (2) investigate the association between colonic transit and fecal microbiota in IBS patients and controls. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We propose an investigation of fecal organic acids, colonic transit and fecal microbiota in 36 IBS patients and 18 healthy controls. The target population will be adults ages 18–65 years meeting Rome IV criteria for IBS (both diarrhea- and constipation-predominant, IBS-D and IBS-C) and asymptomatic controls. Exclusion criteria are: (a) history of microscopic colitis, inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, visceral cancer, chronic infectious disease, immunodeficiency, uncontrolled thyroid disease, liver disease, or elevated AST/ALT>2.0× the upper limit of normal, (b) prior radiation therapy of the abdomen or abdominal surgeries with the exception of appendectomy or cholecystectomy >6 months before study initiation, (c) ingestion of prescription, over the counter, or herbal medications affecting gastrointestinal transit or study interpretation within 6 months of study initiation for controls or within 2 days before study initiation for IBS patients, (d) pregnant females, (e) antibiotic usage within 3 months before study participation, (f) prebiotic or probiotic usage within the 2 weeks before study initiation, (g) tobacco users. Primary outcomes will be fecal bile acid excretion and profile, short-chain fatty acid excretion and profile, colonic transit, and fecal microbiota. Secondary outcomes will be stool characteristics based on responses to validated bowel diaries. Stool samples will be collected from participants during the last 2 days of a 4-day 100 g fat diet and split into 3 samples for fecal microbiota, SCFA, and bile acid analysis and frozen. Frozen aliquots will be shipped to the Metabolite Profiling Facility at Purdue University and the Mayo Clinic Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology for SCFA and bile acid measurements, respectively. Analysis of fecal microbiota will be performed in the research laboratory of Dr David Nelson in collaboration with bioinformatics expertise affiliated with the Nelson lab. Colonic transit time will be measured with the previously validated method using radio-opaque markers. Generalized linear models will be used as the analysis framework for comparing study endpoints among groups. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: This study seeks to examine the innovative concept that specific microbial signatures are associated with increased fecal excretion of organic acids to provide unique insights on a potential mechanistic link between altered intraluminal organic acids and fecal microbiota. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Results may lead to development of targets for novel therapies and diagnostic biomarkers for IBS, emphasizing the role of the fecal metabolome.
To assess antimicrobial prescriber knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) regarding antimicrobial stewardship (AS) and associated barriers to optimal prescribing.
A convenience sample of 2,900 US antimicrobial prescribers at 5 acute-care hospitals within a hospital network.
The following characteristics were assessed with an anonymous, online survey in February 2015: attitudes and practices related to antimicrobial resistance, AS programs, and institutional AS resources; antimicrobial prescribing and AS knowledge; and practices and confidence related to antimicrobial prescribing.
In total, 402 respondents completed the survey. Knowledge gaps were identified through case-based questions. Some respondents sometimes selected overly broad therapy for the susceptibilities given (29%) and some “usually” or “always” preferred using the most broad-spectrum empiric antimicrobials possible (32%). Nearly all (99%) reported reviewing antimicrobial appropriateness at 48–72 hours, but only 55% reported “always” doing so. Furthermore, 45% of respondents felt that they had not received adequate training regarding antimicrobial prescribing. Some respondents lacked confidence selecting empiric therapy using antibiograms (30%), interpreting susceptibility results (24%), de-escalating therapy (18%), and determining duration of therapy (31%). Postprescription review and feedback (PPRF) was the most commonly cited AS intervention (79%) with potential to improve patient care.
Barriers to appropriate antimicrobial selection and de-escalation of antimicrobial therapy were identified among front-line prescribers in acute-care hospitals. Prescribers desired more AS-related education and identified PPRF as the most helpful AS intervention to improve patient care. Educational interventions should be preceded by and tailored to local assessment of educational needs.
Whether monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins differ from each other in a variety of phenotypes is important for genetic twin modeling and for inferences made from twin studies in general. We analyzed whether there were differences in individual, maternal and paternal education between MZ and DZ twins in a large pooled dataset. Information was gathered on individual education for 218,362 adult twins from 27 twin cohorts (53% females; 39% MZ twins), and on maternal and paternal education for 147,315 and 143,056 twins respectively, from 28 twin cohorts (52% females; 38% MZ twins). Together, we had information on individual or parental education from 42 twin cohorts representing 19 countries. The original education classifications were transformed to education years and analyzed using linear regression models. Overall, MZ males had 0.26 (95% CI [0.21, 0.31]) years and MZ females 0.17 (95% CI [0.12, 0.21]) years longer education than DZ twins. The zygosity difference became smaller in more recent birth cohorts for both males and females. Parental education was somewhat longer for fathers of DZ twins in cohorts born in 1990–1999 (0.16 years, 95% CI [0.08, 0.25]) and 2000 or later (0.11 years, 95% CI [0.00, 0.22]), compared with fathers of MZ twins. The results show that the years of both individual and parental education are largely similar in MZ and DZ twins. We suggest that the socio-economic differences between MZ and DZ twins are so small that inferences based upon genetic modeling of twin data are not affected.