To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Fossil crinoids are exceptionally suited to deep-time studies of community paleoecology and niche partitioning. By merging ecomorphological trait and phylogenetic data, this Element summarizes niche occupation and community paleoecology of crinoids from the Bromide fauna of Oklahoma (Sandbian, Upper Ordovician). Patterns of community structure and niche evolution are evaluated over a ~5 million-year period through comparison with the Brechin Lagerstätte (Katian, Upper Ordovician). The authors establish filtration fan density, food size selectivity, and body size as major axes defining niche differentiation, and niche occupation is strongly controlled by phylogeny. Ecological strategies were relatively static over the study interval at high taxonomic scales, but niche differentiation and specialization increased in most subclades. Changes in disparity and species richness indicate the transition between the early-middle Paleozoic Crinoid Evolutionary Faunas was already underway by the Katian due to ecological drivers and was not triggered by the Late Ordovician mass extinction.
Interactions with parents are integral in shaping the development of children’s emotional processes. Important aspects of these interactions are overall (mean level) affective experience and affective synchrony (linkages between parent and child affect across time). Respectively, mean-level affect and affective synchrony reflect aspects of the content and structure of dyadic interactions. Most research on parent–child affect during dyadic interactions has focused on infancy and early childhood; adolescence, however, is a key period for both normative emotional development and the emergence of emotional disorders. We examined affect in early to mid-adolescents (N = 55, Mage = 12.27) and their parents using a video-mediated recall task of 10-min conflict-topic discussions. Using multilevel modeling, we found evidence of significant level-2 effects (mean affect) and level-1 effects (affective synchrony) for parents and their adolescents. Level-2 and level-1 associations were differentially moderated by adolescent age and adolescent internalizing and externalizing symptoms. More specifically, parent–adolescent synchrony was stronger when adolescents were older and had more internalizing problems. Further, more positive adolescent mean affect was associated with more positive parent affect (and vice versa), but only for dyads with low adolescent externalizing problems. Results underscore the importance of additional research examining parent–child affect in adolescence.
Replacing tillage with cover crops (CC) for weed management in corn (Zea mays L.)-soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] systems with mechanical weed control has many soil health benefits but in the western Corn Belt, CC establishment after harvest is hampered by cold temperatures, limited labor and few compatible CC species. Spring-planted CC may be an alternative, but information is lacking on suitable CC species. Our objective was to evaluate four spring-planted CC with respect to biomass production and weed suppression, concurrent with CC growth and post-termination. Cover crop species tested were oat (Avena sativa L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), brown mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.] and yellow mustard (Brassica hirta Moench). They were compared to no-CC treatments that were either tilled pre- and post-planting of soybean (no-CC tilled) or not tilled at all (no-CC weedy). CC were planted in late March to early April, terminated 52–59 days later using an undercutter, and soybean was planted within a week. The experiment had a randomized complete block design with four replications and was repeated for 3 years. Mustards and small grains produced similar amounts of biomass (1.54 Mg ha−1) but mustard biomass production was more consistent (0.85–2.72 Mg ha−1) than that of the small grains (0.35–3.81 Mg ha−1). Relative to the no-CC weedy treatment, mustards suppressed concurrent weed biomass in two out of 3 years, by 31–97%, and small grains suppressed concurrent weed biomass in only 1 year, by 98%.
Six weeks after soybean planting, small grains suppressed weed biomass in one out of 3 years, by 79% relative to the no-CC weedy treatment, but mustards did not provide significant weed suppression. The no-CC tilled treatment suppressed weeds each year relative to the no-CC weedy treatment, on average 87%. The ineffective weed control by CC reduced soybean biomass by about 50% six weeks after planting. While spring-planted CC have the potential for pre-plant weed control, they do not provide adequate early season weed suppression for soybean.
The Brechin Lagerstätte of southern Ontario contains an exceptionally diverse and well-preserved Late Ordovician (Katian) crinoid fauna. We describe four genera and eight species of camerate crinoids from the Brechin Lagerstätte, including six new species. Consequently, the total diversity of the fauna now stands at 27 genera and 39 nominal species, thereby making it the most taxonomically diverse Ordovician crinoid fauna known. Taxa described include the diplobathrid Pararchaeocrinus kiddi new species and the monobathrids Glyptocrinus ramulosus Billings, 1856, Periglyptocrinus priscus (Billings, 1857a), Periglyptocrinus astricus new species, Periglyptocrinus kevinbretti new species, Periglyptocrinus mcdonaldi new species, Periglyptocrinus silvosus new species, and Abludoglyptocrinus steinheimerae new species. We summarize the taxonomic composition, diversity, and abundance distribution of all known crinoids from the Brechin Lagerstätte to better characterize the paleoecological structure and complexity of the community. We establish that the fauna is dominated by the subclass Pentacrinoidea, both in terms of abundance and species richness. In addition, we analyze species-level abundance data using Relative Abundance Distribution (RAD) models to evaluate the ecological complexity of the paleocommunity. We found that community structure of the Brechin Lagerstätte is best explained by an ecologically ‘complex’ RAD model, which suggests that species partitioned niches along multiple resource axes and/or the presence of multiple ecological ways of life. These results indicate that the Brechin Lagerstätte is significant not only for being the most taxonomically diverse Katian crinoid assemblage, but also for being an early ecologically complex fauna that developed in the wake of the Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event.
Upper Ordovician (Katian) strata of the Lake Simcoe region of Ontario record a spectacularly diverse and abundant echinoderm fauna known as the Brechin Lagerstätte. Despite recognition as the most taxonomically diverse Katian crinoid paleocommunity, the Brechin Lagerstätte has received relatively little taxonomic study since Frank Springer published his classic monograph on the “Kirkfield fauna” in 1911.
Using a new collection of exceptionally preserved material, we evaluate all dicyclic inadunate crinoids occurring in the Brechin Lagerstätte, which is predominantly comprised of cladids (Eucladida and Flexibilia). We document 15 species across 11 genera, including descriptions of two new genera and four new species. New taxa include Konieckicrinus brechinensis n. gen. n. sp., K. josephi n. gen. n. sp., Simcoecrinus mahalaki n. gen. n. sp., and Dendrocrinus simcoensis n. sp.
Although cladids are not commonly considered major components of the Early Paleozoic Crinoid Macroevolutionary Fauna, which is traditionally conceived as dominated by disparids and diplobathrid camerates, they are the most diverse major lineage of crinoids occurring in the Brechin Lagerstätte. This unexpected result highlights the important roles of specimen-based taxonomy and systematic revisions in the study of large-scale diversity patterns.
A new finding over the past decade is the stability – and even potential synthesis – of hydrocarbons at depth in Earth. Of course, this has been a highly controversial area of research for decades, but recent evidence has been obtained from natural orogenic geological settings, thermodynamic simulations, and observations of seafloor samples. This chapter reviews this new evidence while highlighting the importance of the physical state of C-O-H fluids contained in rocks on the transport of alkanes like methane, propane, and octane, the impact of pore space and fracture confinement on fluid reactivity, and how reactivity under confinement varies from bulk fluid properties.
The philosophy of Gilles Deleuze has become popular in recent moves to embed approaches such as the new materialist and the posthuman in environmental education. Certainly, a newfound respect for the material universe, including the comprehension of the human place in it, and the tendency to a posthuman theoretical position, are both important given the contemporary environmental crisis, named as the Anthropocene. However, this article will argue that both these philosophies do not go far enough. This is because they must retain a political, social and critical edge if they are to be effective, and this edge can be too easily disregarded in the pursuit of increased engagement with the material and everything not human. In contrast, this article will put forward a Deleuzian approach to environmental education, based on the intellectual quadrant of Spinoza-Marx-Nietzsche-Bergson (Figure 1). It will be argued that only by fully connecting these often conflicting and disparate philosophies that a workable new synthesis for environmental education and a cartography for learning can be achieved. The Deleuzian approach to environmental education will be exemplified through an analysis of current environmental practises in schools as assemblage.
BMI z (BMIz) score based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention growth charts is widely used, but it is inaccurate above the 97th percentile. We explored the performance of alternative metrics based on the absolute distance or % distance of a child’s BMI from the median BMI for sex and age. We used longitudinal data from 5628 children who were first examined <12 years to compare the tracking of three BMI metrics: distance from median, % distance from median and % distance from median on a log scale. We also explored the effects of adjusting these metrics for age differences in the distribution of BMI. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to compare tracking of the metrics. Metrics based on % distance (whether on the original or log scale) yielded higher ICCs compared with distance from median. The ICCs of the age-adjusted metrics were higher than that of the unadjusted metrics, particularly among children who were (1) overweight or had obesity, (2) younger and (3) followed for >3 years. The ICCs of the age-adjusted metrics were also higher compared with that of BMIz among children who were overweight or obese. Unlike BMIz, these alternative metrics do not have an upper limit and can be used for assessing BMI in all children, even those with very high BMIs. The age-adjusted % from median (on a log or linear scale) works well for all ages, while unadjusted % from median is better limited to older children or short follow-up periods.
Prior theory and research have linked negative appraisals (NA), emotion reactivity (ER), and cognitive reactivity (CR) to depression; however, few studies have examined whether even two of these constructs simultaneously, but none have done so in child or adolescent populations. A total of 571 youths (ages 9–13) completed a novel procedure in which all three constructs were assessed in response to the same personally relevant, hypothetical, peer victimization events. Multilevel modeling enabled the extraction of dynamic, within-person, latent-variable measures of NA, ER, and CR. All three constructs were related to children's depressive symptoms in ways that were commensurate with most (but not all) theoretical frameworks. Gender and age differences also emerged. Support for an NA-predicts-ER-predicts-CR model suggests ways that these constructs can be integrated into a more complete, transtheoretical understanding of the cognitive-emotional substrate of depression in children.
BACKGROUND: IGTS is a rare phenomenon of paradoxical germ cell tumor (GCT) growth during or following treatment despite normalization of tumor markers. We sought to evaluate the frequency, clinical characteristics and outcome of IGTS in patients in 21 North-American and Australian institutions. METHODS: Patients with IGTS diagnosed from 2000-2017 were retrospectively evaluated. RESULTS: Out of 739 GCT diagnoses, IGTS was identified in 33 patients (4.5%). IGTS occurred in 9/191 (4.7%) mixed-malignant GCTs, 4/22 (18.2%) immature teratomas (ITs), 3/472 (0.6%) germinomas/germinomas with mature teratoma, and in 17 secreting non-biopsied tumours. Median age at GCT diagnosis was 10.9 years (range 1.8-19.4). Male gender (84%) and pineal location (88%) predominated. Of 27 patients with elevated markers, median serum AFP and Beta-HCG were 70 ng/mL (range 9.2-932) and 44 IU/L (range 4.2-493), respectively. IGTS occurred at a median time of 2 months (range 0.5-32) from diagnosis, during chemotherapy in 85%, radiation in 3%, and after treatment completion in 12%. Surgical resection was attempted in all, leading to gross total resection in 76%. Most patients (79%) resumed GCT chemotherapy/radiation after surgery. At a median follow-up of 5.3 years (range 0.3-12), all but 2 patients are alive (1 succumbed to progressive disease, 1 to malignant transformation of GCT). CONCLUSION: IGTS occurred in less than 5% of patients with GCT and most commonly after initiation of chemotherapy. IGTS was more common in patients with IT-only on biopsy than with mixed-malignant GCT. Surgical resection is a principal treatment modality. Survival outcomes for patients who developed IGTS are favourable.
The Brechin Lagerstätte (Katian, Ordovician) from the Lake Simcoe region of Ontario, Canada contains a diverse array of echinoderms. Here, we describe seven disparid and two hybocrinid crinoids (subclass Pentacrinoidea, infraclass Inadunata), including a new disparid species belonging to the Anomalocrinidae (order Homocrinida). In total, the disparids include Anomalocrinus astrictus n. sp.; Cremacrinus guttenbergensis Kolata, 1975; C. inaequalis Billings, 1859; Daedalocrinus bellevillensis Billings, 1883; Eustenocrinus springeri Ulrich, 1925; Iocrinus trentonensis Walcott, 1883; and Isotomocrinus tenuis Billings, 1857b. The hybocrinids include Hybocrinus tumidus Billings, 1857a and Hybocystites problematicus Wetherby, 1880. Previously known from only the holotype, three additional specimens of E. springeri expand our understanding of this unusual crinoid. Nomenclatural acts include: (1) the recommended designation of D. kirki Ulrich, 1925 as a junior synonym of D. bellevillensis is followed; (2) Hybocrinus pristinus Billings, 1858 is designated as a junior synonym of H. tumidus, and previous decisions are followed to retain Hybocystites eldonensis (Parks, 1908) as a junior synonym of H. problematicus; (3) although probably assignable to Anomalocrinus Meek and Worthen, 1865, the aberrant crinoid Glaucocrinus falconeri Parks and Alcock, 1912, and its genus Glaucocrinus Parks and Alcock, 1912, are designated as nomena dubia; (4) Iocrinus similis (Billings, 1857) is also designated as a nomen dubium; and (5) Iocrinus subcrassus torontoensis Fritz, 1925 is designated a junior synonym of I. subcrassus Meek and Worthen, 1865.
The Upper Ordovician (lower Katian) Bobcaygeon and Verulam formations from the Lake Simcoe region of Ontario contain a highly diverse echinoderm assemblage that is herein recognized as a Konservat-Lagerstätte. Although fossil crinoids have long been recognized from these formations, the fauna has not received a comprehensive taxonomic evaluation since Springer’s classic 1911 monograph. Recent extensive collection and preparation of new material from the Bobcaygeon and Verulam formations near Brechin, Ontario recovered numerous exceptionally preserved crinoid specimens with arms, stems, and attachment structures intact. The Brechin Lagerstätte is the most taxonomically diverse Katian crinoid fauna, with more than 20 crinoid genera represented in this collection.
Here, all dicyclic crinoids belonging to subclass Camerata from the Brechin Lagerstätte are evaluated. The following four genera and seven species are described from the fauna, including one new genus and four new species: Reteocrinus stellaris, Reteocrinus alveolatus, Archaeocrinus sundayae n. sp., Archaeocrinus maraensis n. sp., Priscillacrinus elegans n. gen. n. sp., Cleiocrinus regius, and Cleiocrinus lepidotus n. sp. The exceptional preservation of this collection provides an opportunity to describe more fully the morphologic and ontogenetic details of known Ordovician crinoid taxa, to conduct a taxonomic re-evaluation of many species, to describe new taxa, and to provide a framework for subsequent studies of crinoid community paleoecology.
During the past decade, solar power has experienced transformative price declines, enabling it to grow to supply 1% of U.S. and world electricity. Addressing grid integration challenges, increasing grid flexibility, and further reducing cost will enable even greater potential for solar as an electricity source.
During the past decade, solar power has experienced transformative price declines, enabling it to become a viable electricity source that is supplying 1% of U.S. and world electricity. Further cost reductions are expected to enable substantially greater solar deployment, and new Department of Energy cost targets for utility-scale photovoltaics (PV) and concentrating solar thermal power are $0.03/kW h and $0.05/kW h by 2030, respectively. However, cost reductions are no longer the only significant challenge for PV—addressing grid integration challenges and increasing grid flexibility are critical as the penetration of PV electricity on the grid increases. The development of low cost energy storage is particularly synergistic with low cost PV, as cost declines in each technology are expected to support greater market opportunities for the other.
The present study examined the energy (kilojoule) content of Australian fast-food menu items over seven years, before and after introduction of menu board labelling, to determine the impact of the introduction of the legislation.
Analysis of the median energy contents per serving and per 100g of fast-food menu items. Change in energy content of menu items across the years surveyed and differences in energy content of standard and limited-time only menu items were analysed.
Five of Australia’s largest fast food chains: Hungry Jack’s, KFC, McDonald’s, Oporto and Red Rooster.
All standard and limited-time only menu items available at each fast-food chain, collected annually for seven years, 2009–2015.
Although some fast-food chains/menu item categories had significant increases in the energy contents of their menus at some time points during the 7-year period, overall there were no significant or systematic decreases in energy following the introduction of menu labelling (P=0·19 by +17 kJ/100 g, P=0·83 by +8 kJ/serving). Limited-time only items were significantly higher in median energy content per 100 g than standard menu items (+74 kJ/100 g, P=0·002).
While reformulation across the entire Australian fast-food supply has the potential to positively influence population nutrient intake, the introduction of menu labelling legislation in New South Wales, Australia did not lead to reduced energy contents across the five fast-food chains. To encourage widespread reformulation by the fast-food industry and enhance the impact of labelling legislation, the government should work with industry to set targets for reformulation of nutrient content.
Solution pH from 6.0 to 8.0 did not affect the germination of Italian ryegrass, ‘Pensacola bahiagrass,’ or common bermudagrass grown in petri dishes in growth chambers. Seeding intervals following metsulfuron methyl application varied from species to species and between soil types. Greenhouse studies indicated that in an Okolona silty clay, common bermudagrass should not be planted until 12 wk after metsulfuron methyl application. Italian ryegrass showed no metsulfuron methyl injury at the 6-wk sampling date when no lime was added, indicating reseeding was feasible at this time; however, a 12-wk time interval was not sufficient when lime was applied. Pensacola bahiagrass was injured when reseeded at 12 wk, regardless of liming rate. In a Prentiss fine sandy loam soil, common bermudagrass could be reseeded 12 wk after application when no lime was added, but not when lime was added. Italian ryegrass and Pensacola bahiagrass should not be reseeded for at least 12 wk, regardless of lime rate. Field experiments, where metsulfuron methyl was applied to the field and seeding was carried out in the greenhouse, indicated on the Okolona silty clay that common bermudagrass reseeding could occur at all liming rates after 3 wk, and Italian ryegrass and Pensacola bahiagrass after 6 wk. In the Prentiss fine sandy loam, common bermudagrass reseeding could occur at 3 wk, regardless of lime rate. Italian ryegrass emergence was not affected when reseeded immediately after metsulfuron methyl application, but height was reduced for longer periods, and increased lime rate lengthened this interval. Pensacola bahiagrass reseeding was feasible at 3 wk.
The optimum pH for germination of smallflower morningglory (Jacquemontia tamnifolia (L.) Griseb. # IAQTA] seed was 8.0. A scarification time of 25 to 60 s using a drum scarifier with medium grit provided the best germination, and the optimum temperature for germination was 35 to 40C. However, the optimum temperature for growth was 25 to 35C, with reductions in growth occurring above or below this range. Emergence after 14 days was 81 and 49% at planting depths of 1.5 and 10 cm, respectively. Shade levels of 30 to 92% reduced smallflower morningglory growth by 38 to 87% compared to plants grown in full sunlight.