The aim of rational drug design is to develop small molecules using a quantitative approach to optimize affinity. This should enhance the development of chemical compounds that would specifically, selectively, reversibly, and with high affinity interact with a target protein. It is not yet possible to develop such compounds using computational (i.e., in silico) approach and instead the lead molecules are discovered in high-throughput screening searches of large compound libraries. The main reason why in silico methods are not capable to deliver is our poor understanding of the compound structure–thermodynamics and structure–kinetics correlations. There is a need for databases of intrinsic binding parameters (e.g., the change upon binding in standard Gibbs energy (ΔGint), enthalpy (ΔHint), entropy (ΔSint), volume (ΔVintr), heat capacity (ΔCp,int), association rate (ka,int), and dissociation rate (kd,int)) between a series of closely related proteins and a chemically diverse, but pharmacophoric group-guided library of compounds together with the co-crystal structures that could help explain the structure–energetics correlations and rationally design novel compounds. Assembly of these data will facilitate attempts to provide correlations and train data for modeling of compound binding. Here, we report large datasets of the intrinsic thermodynamic and kinetic data including over 400 primary sulfonamide compound binding to a family of 12 catalytically active human carbonic anhydrases (CA). Thermodynamic parameters have been determined by the fluorescent thermal shift assay, isothermal titration calorimetry, and by the stopped-flow assay of the inhibition of enzymatic activity. Kinetic measurements were performed using surface plasmon resonance. Intrinsic thermodynamic and kinetic parameters of binding were determined by dissecting the binding-linked protonation reactions of the protein and sulfonamide. The compound structure–thermodynamics and kinetics correlations reported here helped to discover compounds that exhibited picomolar affinities, hour-long residence times, and million-fold selectivities over non-target CA isoforms. Drug-lead compounds are suggested for anticancer target CA IX and CA XII, antiglaucoma CA IV, antiobesity CA VA and CA VB, and other isoforms. Together with 85 X-ray crystallographic structures of 60 compounds bound to six CA isoforms, the database should be of help to continue developing the principles of rational target-based drug design.