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BASF Corp. has developed p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD) inhibitor–resistant cotton and soybean that will allow growers to use isoxaflutole in future weed management programs. In 2019 and 2020, a multi-state non-crop research project was conducted to examine weed control following isoxaflutole applied preemergence alone and with several tank-mix partners at high and low labeled rates. At 28 d after treatment (DAT), Palmer amaranth was controlled ≥95% at six of seven locations with isoxaflutole plus the high rate of diuron or fluridone. These same combinations provided the greatest control 42 DAT at four of seven locations. Where large crabgrass was present, isoxaflutole plus the high rate of diuron, fluridone, pendimethalin, or S-metolachlor or isoxaflutole plus the low rate of fluometuron controlled large crabgrass ≥95% in two of three locations 28 DAT. In two of three locations, isoxaflutole plus the high rate of pendimethalin or S-metolachlor improved large crabgrass control 42 DAT when compared to isoxaflutole alone. At 21 DAT, morningglory was controlled ≥95% at all locations with isoxaflutole plus the high rate of diuron and at three of four locations with isoxaflutole plus the high rate of fluometuron. At 42 DAT at all locations, isoxaflutole plus diuron or fluridone and isoxaflutole plus the high rate of fluometuron improved morningglory control compared to isoxaflutole alone. These results suggest that isoxaflutole applied preemergence alone or in tank mixture is efficacious on a number of cross-spectrum annual weeds in cotton, and extended weed control may be achieved when isoxaflutole is tank-mixed with several soil-residual herbicides.
A chloroacetamide herbicide by application timing factorial experiment was conducted in 2017 and 2018 in Mississippi to investigate chloroacetamide use in a dicamba-based Palmer amaranth management program in cotton production. Herbicides used were S-metolachlor or acetochlor, and application timings were preemergence, preemergence followed by (fb) early postemergence, preemergence fb late postemergence, early postemergence alone, late postemergence alone, and early postemergence fb late postemergence. Dicamba was included in all preemergence applications, and dicamba plus glyphosate was included with all postemergence applications. Differences in cotton and weed response due to chloroacetamide type were minimal, and cotton injury at 14 d after late postemergence application was less than 10% for all application timings. Late-season weed control was reduced up to 30% and 53% if chloroacetamide application occurred preemergence or late postemergence only, respectively. Late-season weed densities were minimized if multiple applications were used instead of a single application. Cotton height was reduced by up to 23% if a single application was made late postemergence relative to other application timings. Chloroacetamide application at any timing except preemergence alone minimized late-season weed biomass. Yield was maximized by any treatment involving multiple applications or early postemergence alone, whereas applications preemergence or late postemergence alone resulted in up to 56% and 27% yield losses, respectively. While no yield loss was reported by delaying the first of sequential applications until early postemergence, forgoing a preemergence application is not advisable given the multiple factors that may delay timely postemergence applications such as inclement weather.
XtendFlex® technology from Bayer allows growers to apply glyphosate, glufosinate, and dicamba POST to cotton. Since the evolution and spread of glyphosate-resistant weed species, early POST applications with several modes of action have become common. However, crop injury potential from these applications warrants further examination. Field studies were conducted from 2015 to 2017 at two locations in Mississippi to evaluate XtendFlex® cotton injury from herbicide application. Herbicide applications were made to XtendFlex® cotton at the three- to six-leaf stage with herbicide combinations composed of two-, three-, and four-way combinations of glyphosate, glufosinate, S-metolachlor, and three formulations of dicamba. Data collection included visual estimations of injury, stand counts, cotton height, total mainstem nodes, and nodes above whiteflower at first bloom. Data collection at the end of the season included cotton height, total mainstem nodes, and nodes above cracked boll. Visual estimations of injury from herbicide applications were highest at 3 d following applications containing glufosinate + S-metolachlor (36% to 41% injury) and glufosinate + S-metolachlor in combination with dicamba + glyphosate (39% to 41% injury), regardless of the dicamba formulation. Crop injury decreased at each rating interval and dissipated by 28 d following applications (P = 0.3748). Height reductions were present at first bloom and at the end of the season (P < 0.0001), although cotton yield was unaffected (P = 0.2089), even when injury at 3 d after application was greater than 30%. Results indicate that growers may apply a variety of herbicide tank mixtures to XtendFlex® cotton and expect no yield penalty. Furthermore, if growers are concerned with cotton injury after herbicide applications, the use of glufosinate in combination with S-metolachlor should be approached with caution in XtendFlex® cotton.
Acifluorfen is a nonsystemic PPO-inhibiting herbicide commonly used for POST Palmer amaranth control in soybean, peanut, and rice across the southern United States. Concerns have been raised regarding herbicide selection pressure and particle drift, increasing the need for application practices that optimize herbicide efficacy while mitigating spray drift. Field research was conducted in 2016, 2017, and 2018 in Mississippi and Nebraska to evaluate the influence of a range of spray droplet sizes [150 μm (Fine) to 900 μm (Ultra Coarse)], using acifluorfen to create a novel Palmer amaranth management recommendation using pulse width modulation (PWM) technology. A pooled site-year generalized additive model (GAM) analysis suggested that 150-μm (Fine) droplets should be used to obtain the greatest Palmer amaranth control and dry biomass reduction. Nevertheless, GAM models indicated that only 7.2% of the variability observed in Palmer amaranth control was due to differences in spray droplet size. Therefore, location-specific GAM analyses were performed to account for geographical differences to increase the accuracy of prediction models. GAM models suggested that 250-μm (Medium) droplets optimize acifluorfen efficacy on Palmer amaranth in Dundee, MS, and 310-μm (Medium) droplets could sustain 90% of maximum weed control. Specific models for Beaver City, NE, indicated that 150-μm (Fine) droplets provide maximum Palmer amaranth control, and 340-μm (Medium) droplets could maintain 90% of greatest weed control. For Robinsonville, MS, optimal Palmer amaranth control could be obtained with 370-μm (Coarse) droplets, and 90% maximum control could be sustained with 680 μm (Ultra Coarse) droplets. Differences in optimal droplet size across location could be a result of convoluted interactions between droplet size, weather conditions, population density, plant morphology, and soil fertility levels. Future research should adopt a holistic approach to identify and investigate the influence of environmental and application parameters to optimize droplet size recommendations.
Herbicide applications performed with pulse width modulation (PWM) sprayers to deliver specific spray droplet sizes could maintain product efficacy, minimize potential off-target movement, and increase flexibility in field operations. Given the continuous expansion of herbicide-resistant Palmer amaranth populations across the southern and midwestern United States, efficacious and cost-effective means of application are needed to maximize Palmer amaranth control. Experiments were conducted in two locations in Mississippi (2016, 2017, and 2018) and one location in Nebraska (2016 and 2017) for a total of 7 site-years. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of a range of spray droplet sizes [150 (Fine) to 900 μm (Ultra Coarse)] on lactofen and acifluorfen efficacy for Palmer amaranth control. The results of this research indicated that spray droplet size did not influence lactofen efficacy on Palmer amaranth. Palmer amaranth control and percent dry-biomass reduction remained consistent with lactofen applied within the aforementioned droplet size range. Therefore, larger spray droplets should be used as part of a drift mitigation approach. In contrast, acifluorfen application with 300-μm (Medium) spray droplets provided the greatest Palmer amaranth control. Although percent biomass reduction was numerically greater with 300-μm (Medium) droplets, results did not differ with respect to spray droplet size, possibly as a result of initial plant injury, causing weight loss, followed by regrowth. Overall, 900-μm (Ultra Coarse) droplets could be used effectively without compromising lactofen efficacy on Palmer amaranth, and 300-μm (Medium) droplets should be used to achieve maximum Palmer amaranth control with acifluorfen.
Field experiments were conducted in 2012 and 2013 across four locations for a total of 6 site-years in the midsouthern United States to determine the effect of growth stage at exposure on soybean sensitivity to sublethal rates of dicamba (8.8 g ae ha−1) and 2,4-D (140 g ae ha−1). Regression analysis revealed that soybean was most susceptible to injury from 2,4-D when exposed between 413 and 1,391 accumulated growing degree days (GDD) from planting, approximately between V1 and R2 growth stages. In terms of terminal plant height, soybean was most susceptible to 2,4-D between 448 and 1,719 GDD, or from V1 to R4. However, maximum susceptibility to 2,4-D was only between 624 and 1,001 GDD or from V3 to V5 for yield loss. As expected, soybean was sensitive to dicamba for longer spans of time, ranging from 0 to 1,162 GDD for visible injury or from emergence to R2. Likewise, soybean height was most affected when dicamba exposure occurred between 847 and 1,276 GDD or from V4 to R2. Regarding grain yield, soybean was most susceptible to dicamba between 820 and 1,339 GDD or from V4 to R2. Consequently, these data indicate that soybean response to 2,4-D and dicamba can be variable within vegetative or reproductive growth stages; therefore, specific growth stage at the time of exposure should be considered when evaluating injury from off-target movement. In addition, application of dicamba near susceptible soybean within the V4 to R2 growth stages should be avoided because this is the time of maximum susceptibility. Research regarding soybean sensitivity to 2,4-D and dicamba should focus on multiple exposure times and also avoid generalizing growth stages to vegetative or reproductive.
Recent commercialization of auxin herbicide–based weed control systems has led to increased off-target exposure of susceptible cotton cultivars to auxin herbicides. Off-target deposition of dilute concentrations of auxin herbicides can occur on cotton at any stage of growth. Field experiments were conducted at two locations in Mississippi from 2014 to 2016 to assess the response of cotton at various growth stages after exposure to a sublethal 2,4-D concentration of 8.3 g ae ha−1. Herbicide applications occurred weekly from 0 to 14 weeks after emergence (WAE). Cotton exposure to 2,4-D at 2 to 9 WAE resulted in up to 64% visible injury, whereas 2,4-D exposure 5 to 6 WAE resulted in machine-harvested yield reductions of 18% to 21%. Cotton maturity was delayed after exposure 2 to 10 WAE, and height was increased from exposure 6 to 9 WAE due to decreased fruit set after exposure. Total hand-harvested yield was reduced from 2,4-D exposure 3, 5 to 8, and 13 WAE. Growth stage at time of exposure influenced the distribution of yield by node and position. Yield on lower and inner fruiting sites generally decreased from exposure, and yield partitioned to vegetative or aborted positions and upper fruiting sites increased. Reductions in gin turnout, micronaire, fiber length, fiber-length uniformity, and fiber elongation were observed after exposure at certain growth stages, but the overall effects on fiber properties were small. These results indicate that cotton is most sensitive to low concentrations of 2,4-D during late vegetative and squaring growth stages.
Chemical weed control remains a widely used component of integrated weed management strategies because of its cost-effectiveness and rapid removal of crop pests. Additionally, dicamba-plus-glyphosate mixtures are a commonly recommended herbicide combination to combat herbicide resistance, specifically in recently commercially released dicamba-tolerant soybean and cotton. However, increased spray drift concerns and antagonistic interactions require that the application process be optimized to maximize biological efficacy while minimizing environmental contamination potential. Field research was conducted in 2016, 2017, and 2018 across three locations (Mississippi, Nebraska, and North Dakota) for a total of six site-years. The objectives were to characterize the efficacy of a range of droplet sizes [150 µm (Fine) to 900 µm (Ultra Coarse)] using a dicamba-plus-glyphosate mixture and to create novel weed management recommendations utilizing pulse-width modulation (PWM) sprayer technology. Results across pooled site-years indicated that a droplet size of 395 µm (Coarse) maximized weed mortality from a dicamba-plus-glyphosate mixture at 94 L ha–1. However, droplet size could be increased to 620 µm (Extremely Coarse) to maintain 90% of the maximum weed mortality while further mitigating particle drift potential. Although generalized droplet size recommendations could be created across site-years, optimum droplet sizes within each site-year varied considerably and may be dependent on weed species, geographic location, weather conditions, and herbicide resistance(s) present in the field. The precise, site-specific application of a dicamba-plus-glyphosate mixture using the results of this research will allow applicators to more effectively utilize PWM sprayers, reduce particle drift potential, maintain biological efficacy, and reduce the selection pressure for the evolution of herbicide-resistant weeds.
The introduction of auxin herbicide weed control systems has led to increased occurrence of crop injury in susceptible soybeans and cotton. Off-target exposure to sublethal concentrations of dicamba can occur at varying growth stages, which may affect crop response. Field experiments were conducted in Mississippi in 2014, 2015, and 2016 to characterize cotton response to a sublethal concentration of dicamba equivalent to 1/16X the labeled rate. Weekly applications of dicamba at 35 g ae ha−1 were made to separate sets of replicated plots immediately following planting until 14 wk after emergence (WAE). Exposure to dicamba from 1 to 9 WAE resulted in up to 32% visible injury, and exposure from 7 to 10 WAE delayed crop maturity. Exposure from 8 to 10 and 13 WAE led to increased cotton height, while an 18% reduction in machine-harvested yield resulted from exposure at 6 WAE. Cotton exposure at 3 to 9 WAE reduced the seed cotton weight partitioned to position 1 fruiting sites, while exposure at 3 to 6 WAE also reduced yield in position 2 fruiting sites. Exposure at 2, 3, and 5 to 7 WAE increased the percent of yield partitioned to vegetative branches. An increase in percent of yield partitioned to plants with aborted terminals occurred following exposure from 3 to 7 WAE and corresponded with reciprocal decreases in yield partitioned to positional fruiting sites. Minimal effects were observed on fiber quality, except for decreases in fiber length uniformity resulting from exposure at 9 and 10 WAE.
Seven half-day regional listening sessions were held between December 2016 and April 2017 with groups of diverse stakeholders on the issues and potential solutions for herbicide-resistance management. The objective of the listening sessions was to connect with stakeholders and hear their challenges and recommendations for addressing herbicide resistance. The coordinating team hired Strategic Conservation Solutions, LLC, to facilitate all the sessions. They and the coordinating team used in-person meetings, teleconferences, and email to communicate and coordinate the activities leading up to each regional listening session. The agenda was the same across all sessions and included small-group discussions followed by reporting to the full group for discussion. The planning process was the same across all the sessions, although the selection of venue, time of day, and stakeholder participants differed to accommodate the differences among regions. The listening-session format required a great deal of work and flexibility on the part of the coordinating team and regional coordinators. Overall, the participant evaluations from the sessions were positive, with participants expressing appreciation that they were asked for their thoughts on the subject of herbicide resistance. This paper details the methods and processes used to conduct these regional listening sessions and provides an assessment of the strengths and limitations of those processes.
Herbicide resistance is ‘wicked’ in nature; therefore, results of the many educational efforts to encourage diversification of weed control practices in the United States have been mixed. It is clear that we do not sufficiently understand the totality of the grassroots obstacles, concerns, challenges, and specific solutions needed for varied crop production systems. Weed management issues and solutions vary with such variables as management styles, regions, cropping systems, and available or affordable technologies. Therefore, to help the weed science community better understand the needs and ideas of those directly dealing with herbicide resistance, seven half-day regional listening sessions were held across the United States between December 2016 and April 2017 with groups of diverse stakeholders on the issues and potential solutions for herbicide resistance management. The major goals of the sessions were to gain an understanding of stakeholders and their goals and concerns related to herbicide resistance management, to become familiar with regional differences, and to identify decision maker needs to address herbicide resistance. The messages shared by listening-session participants could be summarized by six themes: we need new herbicides; there is no need for more regulation; there is a need for more education, especially for others who were not present; diversity is hard; the agricultural economy makes it difficult to make changes; and we are aware of herbicide resistance but are managing it. The authors concluded that more work is needed to bring a community-wide, interdisciplinary approach to understanding the complexity of managing weeds within the context of the whole farm operation and for communicating the need to address herbicide resistance.
Bispyribac is registered for postemergence control of broadleaf, sedge, and grass weeds in rice. Bispyribac inhibits the acetolactate synthase enzyme in sensitive plants. Herbicides in this class of chemistry require a spray adjuvant to achieve optimal efficacy, often achieve different levels of weed control according to the spray adjuvant used, and typically have rainfast periods of at least 6 to 8 h. Efficacy and rainfastness of bispyribac can be affected by spray adjuvant and the addition of urea ammonium nitrate (UAN). Greenhouse experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of spray adjuvant type, addition of UAN, and soil moisture on bispyribac efficacy on barnyardgrass. Control of barnyardgrass was improved when UAN was added to bispyribac at 0.4 or 0.8 g ha−1 plus an organosilicone-based nonionic surfactant (OSL/NIS) or methylated seed oil/organosilicone (MSO/OSL) spray adjuvant. The type of adjuvant added to the spray solution affected bispyribac efficacy on barnyardgrass. The addition of UAN decreased the rainfast period from 8 h (registered rainfast period) to 1 or 4 h (99 to 100% control) when either the OSL/NIS or MSO/OSL adjuvant was applied with bispyribac, respectively. Applying UAN and OSL/NIS or MSO/OSL adjuvant with bispyribac enhanced efficacy and reduced the time period required between bispyribac application and washoff during a rainfall event. Increasing soil moisture conditions resulted in greater efficacy from bispyribac when applied with and without UAN.
Glyphosate applied to glyphosate-resistant (RR) cotton varieties after the four-leaf stage can decrease boll retention resulting in severe yield reductions. Enhanced glyphosate-resistant cotton (RR Flex), released for commercial use in 2006, offers a wider window of glyphosate applications without the risk of yield loss. However, no data exist regarding the effect of glyphosate application, especially late season applications, on fruit partitioning in RR Flex cotton. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of glyphosate rate and application timing on RR Flex cotton yield and fruit partitioning compared with current RR cotton. Studies were conducted during a 3-yr period (2004 to 2006), throughout the cotton growing regions of Mississippi. Roundup Ready (ST 4892 Bollgard/Roundup Ready [BR]) and Roundup Ready Flex (Mon 171 Enhanced Roundup Ready and ST 4554 Bollgard II/Roundup Ready Flex [B2RF]) cotton was planted, and glyphosate was applied at various rates and cotton growth stages. Data were collected using box mapping, a technique designed to depict yield partitioning on a cotton plant. RR Flex cotton yields were unaffected by glyphosate application timing or rate. Yields for ST 4892 BR were affected by application timings after the sixth leaf. ST 4892 BR had increased yield partitioning to position-three bolls and upper nodes with later application timings of glyphosate. Increases in seed cotton partitioned to higher nodes and outer fruiting positions were unable to compensate for fruit shed from innermost, lower fruiting sites. These data indicate that RR Flex cotton has excellent tolerance to late-season glyphosate applications.
Inconsistent control of barnyardgrass with bispyribac may be alleviated through adjuvant technology. Experiments were conducted to determine the effect of adjuvant and urea ammonium nitrate (UAN) on absorption and translocation of bispyribac in barnyardgrass. Additional experiments were conducted to determine when maximum absorption and translocation occurred with the use of a methylated seed oil/organosilicone adjuvant (MSO/OSL) plus UAN (0.37 L ha−1 and 2% v/v). In the initial experiment, 14C-bispyribac–treated leaves, nontreated leaves, and roots were collected 6 and 24 h after application. Absorption was greatest with tank-mixed MSO/OSL (0.37 L ha−1) plus UAN (2% v/v) and the proprietary blend of MSO/OSL/UAN (2% v/v) at 80 and 74% of applied 14C-bispyribac, respectively. Translocation to nontreated leaves and roots was also highest with these treatments. Increased translocation appeared to be due to greater herbicide absorption, not an increase in translocation rate. The addition of 32% UAN to MSO/OSL and nonionic organosilicone (OSL/NIS) adjuvant systems resulted in a four to fivefold increase in absorption compared with treatments without UAN. Recovery of 14C-bispyribac in additional experiments generally decreased as time after application increased; however, recovery was 86% or greater for all time intervals. By 12 h after application, 68% of applied 14C-bispyribac was absorbed. At this time, 14C-bispyribac was partitioned within the plant in the following manner: 48% in the treated area, 10% in leaf tissue from treated area to tip of the treated leaf, 1.9% in leaf tissue from treated area to collar region of the treated leaf, 1.6% in remaining leaves from collar of treated leaf upward, 5.3% in remaining leaves from collar of treated leaf downward to soil line, and 0.7% in the roots. These data indicate that maximum absorption was achieved within 12 h with a tank mix of MSO/OSL and UAN or the MSO/OSL/UAN blend.
The anticipated release of EnlistTM cotton, corn, and soybean cultivars likely will increase the use of 2,4-D, raising concerns over potential injury to susceptible cotton. An experiment was conducted at 12 locations over 2013 and 2014 to determine the impact of 2,4-D at rates simulating drift (2 g ae ha−1) and tank contamination (40 g ae ha−1) on cotton during six different growth stages. Growth stages at application included four leaf (4-lf), nine leaf (9-lf), first bloom (FB), FB + 2 wk, FB + 4 wk, and FB + 6 wk. Locations were grouped according to percent yield loss compared to the nontreated check (NTC), with group I having the least yield loss and group III having the most. Epinasty from 2,4-D was more pronounced with applications during vegetative growth stages. Importantly, yield loss did not correlate with visual symptomology, but more closely followed effects on boll number. The contamination rate at 9-lf, FB, or FB + 2 wk had the greatest effect across locations, reducing the number of bolls per plant when compared to the NTC, with no effect when applied at FB + 4 wk or later. A reduction of boll number was not detectable with the drift rate except in group III when applied at the FB stage. Yield was influenced by 2,4-D rate and stage of cotton growth. Over all locations, loss in yield of greater than 20% occurred at 5 of 12 locations when the drift rate was applied between 4-lf and FB + 2 wk (highest impact at FB). For the contamination rate, yield loss was observed at all 12 locations; averaged over these locations yield loss ranged from 7 to 66% across all growth stages. Results suggest the greatest yield impact from 2,4-D occurs between 9-lf and FB + 2 wk, and the level of impact is influenced by 2,4-D rate, crop growth stage, and environmental conditions.
Because of the development of glyphosate-resistant weed species, the lack of new herbicide chemistry, and the late-season emergence of annual grass species, efforts are underway to expand the use of currently available herbicides for use in cotton. Field studies were conducted in 2005 and 2006 to evaluate the effect of POST-applied pendimethalin formulation and application rate on cotton fruit partitioning. Oil- and water-based pendimethalin formulations as well as S-metolachlor were applied to cotton that had four true leaves. All pendimethalin and S-metolachlor applications included glyphosate for broad-spectrum weed control. Pendimethalin formulation and application rate had no effect on seed-cotton partitioning to horizontal fruiting zones, on second- or third-position horizontal fruiting sites, or on monopodial branches. However, increased seed-cotton partitioned to plants that had lost apical dominance was observed when the water-based pendimethalin formulation was applied at rates of 1.7 kg ai/ha and higher as well as when the oil-based pendimethalin formulation was applied at 3.3 kg ai/ha. Application of water-based pendimethalin at rates of 1.7 and 3.4 kg ai/ha and oil-based pendimethalin at rates of 0.8, 1.7, and 3.3 kg ai/ha resulted in reduced seed-cotton located at position 1 fruiting sites compared with the untreated check. POST application of S-metolachlor had no effect on fruit partitioning to horizontal fruiting positions or vertical fruiting zones. Minor differences in seed-cotton partitioning to cohorts and individual fruiting nodes were observed from application of glyphosate, pendimethalin, and S-metolachlor. However, no differences in seed-cotton yield were observed from application of glyphosate, S-metolachlor, or pendimethalin, regardless of formulation or application rate. POST pendimethalin application at rates less than 1.7 kg ai/ha is relatively safe and should provide cotton producers with an additional tool for herbicide-resistant weeds and late-season annual grasses.
Field studies were conducted in Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, and Tennessee during 2010 and 2011 to determine the effect of glufosinate application rate on LibertyLink and WideStrike cotton. Glufosinate was applied in a single application (three-leaf cotton) or sequential application (three-leaf followed by eight-leaf cotton) at 0.6, 1.2, 1.8, and 2.4 kg ai ha−1. Glufosinate application rate did not affect visual injury or growth parameters measured in LibertyLink cotton. No differences in LibertyLink cotton yield were observed because of glufosinate application rate; however, LibertyLink cotton treated with glufosinate yielded slightly more cotton than the nontreated check. Visual estimates of injury to WideStrike cotton increased with each increase in glufosinate application rate. However, the injury was transient, and by 28 d after the eight-leaf application, no differences in injury were observed. WideStrike cotton growth was adversely affected during the growing season following glufosinate application at rates of 1.2 kg ha−1 and greater; however, cotton height and total nodes were unaffected by glufosinate application rate at the end of the season. WideStrike cotton maturity was delayed, and yields were reduced following glufosinate application at rates of 1.2 kg ha−1 and above. Fiber quality of LibertyLink and WideStrike cotton was unaffected by glufosinate application rate. These data indicate that glufosinate may be applied to WideStrike cotton at rates of 0.6 kg ha−1 without inhibiting cotton growth, development, or yield. Given the lack of injury or yield reduction following glufosinate application to LibertyLink cotton, these cultivars possess robust resistance to glufosinate. Growers are urged to be cautious when increasing glufosinate application rates to increase control of glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth in WideStrike cotton. However, glufosinate application rates may be increased to maximum labeled rates when making applications to LibertyLink cotton without fear of reducing cotton growth, development, or yield.
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