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In 2000, The International Nomenclature Committee for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Disease was established. This committee eventually evolved into the International Society for Nomenclature of Paediatric and Congenital Heart Disease. The working component of this international nomenclature society has been The International Working Group for Mapping and Coding of Nomenclatures for Paediatric and Congenital Heart Disease, also known as the Nomenclature Working Group. The Nomenclature Working Group created the International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code, which is available for free download from the internet at [http://www.IPCCC.NET].
In previous publications from the Nomenclature Working Group, unity has been produced by cross-mapping separate systems for coding, as for example in the treatment of the functionally univentricular heart, hypoplastic left heart syndrome, or congenitally corrected transposition. In this manuscript, we review the nomenclature, definition, and classification of heterotaxy, also known as the heterotaxy syndrome, placing special emphasis on the philosophical approach taken by both the Bostonian school of segmental notation developed from the teachings of Van Praagh, and the European school of sequential segmental analysis. The Nomenclature Working Group offers the following definition for the term “heterotaxy”: “Heterotaxy is synonymous with ‘visceral heterotaxy’ and ‘heterotaxy syndrome’. Heterotaxy is defined as an abnormality where the internal thoraco-abdominal organs demonstrate abnormal arrangement across the left-right axis of the body. By convention, heterotaxy does not include patients with either the expected usual or normal arrangement of the internal organs along the left-right axis, also known as ‘situs solitus’, nor patients with complete mirror-imaged arrangement of the internal organs along the left-right axis also known as ‘situs inversus’.” “Situs ambiguus is defined as an abnormality in which there are components of situs solitus and situs inversus in the same person. Situs ambiguus, therefore, can be considered to be present when the thoracic and abdominal organs are positioned in such a way with respect to each other as to be not clearly lateralised and thus have neither the usual, or normal, nor the mirror-imaged arrangements.”
The heterotaxy syndrome as thus defined is typically associated with complex cardiovascular malformations. Proper description of the heart in patients with this syndrome requires complete description of both the cardiac relations and the junctional connections of the cardiac segments, with documentation of the arrangement of the atrial appendages, the ventricular topology, the nature of the unions of the segments across the atrioventricular and the ventriculoarterial junctions, the infundibular morphologies, and the relationships of the arterial trunks in space. The position of the heart in the chest, and the orientation of the cardiac apex, must also be described separately. Particular attention is required for the venoatrial connections, since these are so often abnormal. The malformations within the heart are then analysed and described separately as for any patient with suspected congenital cardiac disease. The relationship and arrangement of the remaining thoraco-abdominal organs, including the spleen, the lungs, and the intestines, also must be described separately, because, although common patterns of association have been identified, there are frequent exceptions to these common patterns. One of the clinically important implications of heterotaxy syndrome is that splenic abnormalities are common. Investigation of any patient with the cardiac findings associated with heterotaxy, therefore, should include analysis of splenic morphology. The less than perfect association between the state of the spleen and the form of heart disease implies that splenic morphology should be investigated in all forms of heterotaxy, regardless of the type of cardiac disease. The splenic morphology should not be used to stratify the form of disease within the heart, and the form of cardiac disease should not be used to stratify the state of the spleen. Intestinal malrotation is another frequently associated lesion that must be considered. Some advocate that all patients with heterotaxy, especially those with isomerism of the right atrial appendages or asplenia syndrome, should have a barium study to evaluate for intestinal malrotation, given the associated potential morbidity. The cardiac anatomy and associated cardiac malformations, as well as the relationship and arrangement of the remaining thoraco-abdominal organs, must be described separately. It is only by utilizing this stepwise and logical progression of analysis that it becomes possible to describe correctly, and to classify properly, patients with heterotaxy.
The association of atrioventricular septal defect with common atrioventricular junction and malformations of the ventricular outflow tracts presents a significant challenge for the surgeon. In the most common of these, the association with tetralogy of Fallot, several surgical techniques have been described, and shown to deliver excellent results.1–10 On the other hand, in the setting of more extreme malformations, such as double-outlet right ventricle, discordant ventriculo-arterial connections, or common arterial trunk, albeit rare lesions, the combination presents a more formidable surgical challenge, as evidenced by the few reports of successful repair of these lesions. This challenge is both physiological, when dealing with a very sick neonate or infant, as well as anatomical in terms of the complexity of the malformation and the ability to achieve a successful biventricular repair. Our goal in this review is to discuss the surgical treatment in the setting of tetralogy of Fallot and double outlet right ventricle, with emphasis on biventricular repair.
The heterotaxy syndromes are characterized by a high incidence of cardiac anomalies of extreme heterogeneity. Due to this, the surgical management is varied and challenging. Although a minority of patients can undergo biventricular repair, the complexity of the cardiac defects, and the high incidence of ventricular hypoplasia, mandate a surgical approach in the majority of patients depending on the creation of a functionally univentricular heart. Traditionally, the functionally univentricular approach was associated with a high mortality. More recently, the results have been improving as a result of better understanding of these malformations, and logical improvements in surgical technique. In this review, we will make brief comments on the nomenclature and classification of the heterotaxy syndromes, and the range of cardiac anomalies, before concentrating on the surgical treatment for those patients having functionally univentricular hearts in the setting of heterotaxy. More specifically, we will review initial palliation in early life, creation of the cavopulmonary anastomoses, including the Kawashima procedure and the Fontan circulation, and the role of transplantation.
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