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The choice between a pronoun and zero anaphor for the expression of third-person subjects is examined in a corpus of Vera'a (Oceanic). While predominantly expressed by a pronoun, subjects are found to permit zero form with referents that have low anaphoric distance. Within this context, zero is found to be preferred with a subset of verbal predicates that take a specific tense-aspect-mood-polarity (TAMP) marker that historically retains subject agreement. The strong preference for pronouns is related to the clitic behavior of adjacent TAMP morphology and the rudimentarity of agreement. Animacy and number also bear on subject variation. Effects of clause-combining and the use of connectives do not align with findings from studies of the same choice in other languages. Our findings underscore the prominent role of purely structural over functional motivations for the choice of pronouns over zero.
The choice between pronominal and zero form for objects in the Oceanic language Vera'a is investigated quantitatively in texts from two registers with discourse topics of three different ontological class memberships. Discourse topicality is found to predict best the choice between pronoun and zero, outranking the factors of ontological class membership, antecedent form, and antecedent function. Contrary to current models of referent tracking, antecedent distance does not show any effect at all. It is concluded that (a) discourse structure and activation are not universally the most significant factors in referential choice and (b) ontological class and discourse topicality can be teased apart through appropriate text sampling, and it is the latter that is most significant. This bears important implications for the grammaticalization of object agreement and the typology of differential object marking.
Bottom – up techniques were used to obtain gas sensors based on individual SnO2 nanowires placed over microhotplates with integrated heaters. These nanowires were electrically contacted to pre-patterned microelectrodes by means of Focused Ion Beam (FIB) nanofabrication methodologies. The performance of these sensors, which exhibit reproducible and stable responses, was evaluated as function of different gas atmospheres and dissipated power by the heater, demonstrating that this technological approach could be used to develop functional devices based on nanomaterials.
Tomasello et al. argue that the “small difference that made a big difference” in the evolution of the human mind was the disposition to share intentions. Chimpanzees are said to understand certain mental states (like intentions), but not share them. We argue that an alternative model is better supported by the data: the capacity to represent mental states (and other unobservable phenomena) is a human specialization that co-evolved with natural language.
The present report documents the successful outcome in three patients with a unilateral recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis managed with an intracordal injection of autologous fat who ultimately experienced a complete recovery of function. Such data demonstrates the safety of intracordal autologous fat injection in patients who ultimately recover function.
To assess risk factors for colonization and nosocomial infection with ampicillin-resistant enterococci (ARE).
Patients with ampicillin-resistant enterococci were compared retrospectively by logistic regression analysis with controls harboring susceptible strains. ARE were characterized by whole plasmid DNA analysis and restriction enzyme analysis of plasmid (REAP) DNA with EcoRI.
The study was done at a 1,125 bed, tertiary-care teaching hospital in North Carolina with patients from whom enterococci were isolated from June 1, 1989, to March 30, 1991.
The final study group comprised 44 cases with nosocomially-acquired colonization or infection with ARE and 100 controls with ampicillin-susceptible strains. Clinical and epidemiological risk factors for ARE were abstracted by chart review.
After controlling for age and site of infection, patients with ARE were more likely to have been admitted previously to our hospital and to have received third-generation cepha-losporins and clindamycin. However, only advanced age and clindamycin therapy were independently associatedwith presence of ARE. REAP with EcoRI showed 20 groups of enterococci on 19 different wards.
These results suggest that ARE are endemic and multifocal in origin in our hospital and that advanced age and use of clindamycin are important selective risk factors for ARE colonization and infection (Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1993;14:629-635).
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