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Faulted and fractured systems form a critical component of fluid flow, especially within low-permeable reservoirs. Therefore, developing suitable methodologies for acquiring structural data and simulating flow through fractured media is vital to improve efficiency and reduce uncertainties in modelling the subsurface. Outcrop analogues provide excellent areas for the analysis and characterization of fractures within the reservoir rocks where subsurface data are limited. Variation in fracture arrangement, distribution and connectivity can be obtained from 2D fractured cliff sections and pavements. These sections can then be used for efficient discretization and homogenization techniques to obtain reliable predictions on permeability distributions in the geothermal reservoirs. Fracture network anisotropy in the Malm reservoir unit is assessed using detailed structural analysis and numerical homogenization of outcrop analogues from an open pit quarry within the Franconian Basin, Germany. Several events are recorded in the fracture networks from the Late Jurassic the Alpine Orogeny and are observed to be influenced by the Kulmbach Fault nearby with a reverse throw of 800 m. The fractured outcrops are digitized for fluid flow simulations and homogenization to determine the permeability tensors of the networks. The tensors show differences in fluid transport direction where fracture permeability is controlled by orientation compared to a constant value. As a result, it is observed that the orientation of the tensor is influenced by the Kulmbach Fault, and therefore faults within the reservoirs at depth should be considered as important controls on the fracture flow of the geothermal system.
We assessed the prevalence of antibiotic prescriptions among ambulatory patients tested for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in a large public US healthcare system and found a low overall rate of antibiotic prescriptions (6.7%). Only 3.8% of positive severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) tests were associated with an antibiotic prescription within 7 days.
The Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program conducted point-prevalence surveys in acute-care hospitals in 2002, 2009, and 2017 to identify trends in antimicrobial use.
Eligible inpatients were identified from a 24-hour period in February of each survey year. Patients were eligible (1) if they were admitted for ≥48 hours or (2) if they had been admitted to the hospital within a month. Chart reviews were conducted. We calculated the prevalence of antimicrobial use as follows: patients receiving ≥1 antimicrobial during survey period per number of patients surveyed × 100%.
In each survey, 28−47 hospitals participated. In 2002, 2,460 (36.5%; 95% CI, 35.3%−37.6%) of 6,747 surveyed patients received ≥1 antimicrobial. In 2009, 3,566 (40.1%, 95% CI, 39.0%−41.1%) of 8,902 patients received ≥1 antimicrobial. In 2017, 3,936 (39.6%, 95% CI, 38.7%−40.6%) of 9,929 patients received ≥1 antimicrobial. Among patients who received ≥1 antimicrobial, penicillin use increased 36.8% between 2002 and 2017, and third-generation cephalosporin use increased from 13.9% to 18.1% (P < .0001). Between 2002 and 2017, fluoroquinolone use decreased from 25.7% to 16.3% (P < .0001) and clindamycin use decreased from 25.7% to 16.3% (P < .0001) among patients who received ≥1 antimicrobial. Aminoglycoside use decreased from 8.8% to 2.4% (P < .0001) and metronidazole use decreased from 18.1% to 9.4% (P < .0001). Carbapenem use increased from 3.9% in 2002 to 6.1% in 2009 (P < .0001) and increased by 4.8% between 2009 and 2017 (P = .60).
The prevalence of antimicrobial use increased between 2002 and 2009 and then stabilized between 2009 and 2017. These data provide important information for antimicrobial stewardship programs.
To determine the incidence of severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection among healthcare personnel (HCP) and to assess occupational risks for SARS-CoV-2 infection.
Prospective cohort of healthcare personnel (HCP) followed for 6 months from May through December 2020.
Large academic healthcare system including 4 hospitals and affiliated clinics in Atlanta, Georgia.
HCP, including those with and without direct patient-care activities, working during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic.
Incident SARS-CoV-2 infections were determined through serologic testing for SARS-CoV-2 IgG at enrollment, at 3 months, and at 6 months. HCP completed monthly surveys regarding occupational activities. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify occupational factors that increased the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection.
Of the 304 evaluable HCP that were seronegative at enrollment, 26 (9%) seroconverted for SARS-CoV-2 IgG by 6 months. Overall, 219 participants (73%) self-identified as White race, 119 (40%) were nurses, and 121 (40%) worked on inpatient medical-surgical floors. In a multivariable analysis, HCP who identified as Black race were more likely to seroconvert than HCP who identified as White (odds ratio, 4.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.3–14.2). Increased risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection was not identified for any occupational activity, including spending >50% of a typical shift at a patient’s bedside, working in a COVID-19 unit, or performing or being present for aerosol-generating procedures (AGPs).
In our study cohort of HCP working in an academic healthcare system, <10% had evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection over 6 months. No specific occupational activities were identified as increasing risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection.
We examined the associations between the developmental timing of interpersonal trauma exposure (IPT) and three indicators of involvement in and quality of romantic relationships in emerging adulthood: relationship status, relationship satisfaction, and partner alcohol use. We further examined whether these associations varied in a sex-specific manner. In a sample of emerging adult college students (N = 12,358; 61.5% female) assessed longitudinally across the college years, we found precollege IPT increased the likelihood of being in a relationship, while college-onset IPT decreased the likelihood. Precollege and college-onset IPT predicted lower relationship satisfaction, and college-onset IPT predicted higher partner alcohol use. There was no evidence that associations between IPT and relationship characteristics varied in a sex-specific manner. Findings indicate that IPT exposure, and the developmental timing of IPT, may affect college students’ relationship status. Findings also suggest that IPT affects their ability to form satisfying relationships with prosocial partners.
Traditional accounts of state expansion and of the rise of state schooling in the nineteenth century emphasize economic, political, and social development as well as conflict and domination. These accounts explain the introduction of new state structures, like ministries of education, rules of compulsion, and the general elaboration of bureaucracies. This article contributes to the historical sociological study of state expansion with specific regard to schooling by refocusing on the role that macrocultural processes of social scientization played in shaping the discursive construction and expansion of the state. Designed to analyze the 1.3 million speeches given in the UK parliament during the nineteenth century, the research reported here supports the argument that the development, professionalization, and institutionalization of the social sciences—social scientization—was a powerful force of cultural construction across the West and was positively associated with expanded notions of the state, as evidenced with the case of the United Kingdom. This article therefore not only provides an important alternative view to those who emphasize economic and social transformation but it also advances the empirical study of the powerful role that social science, as generative institution of cultural construction, played in shaping official discourses of the state—in this instance, the schooling state.
Irritability is a transdiagnostic symptom dimension in developmental psychopathology, closely related to the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) construct of frustrative nonreward. Consistent with the RDoC framework and calls for transdiagnostic, developmentally-sensitive assessment methods, we report data from a smartphone-based, naturalistic ecological momentary assessment (EMA) study of irritability. We assessed 109 children and adolescents (Mage = 12.55 years; 75.20% male) encompassing several diagnostic groups – disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), anxiety disorders (ANX), healthy volunteers (HV). The participants rated symptoms three times per day for 1 week. Compliance with the EMA protocol was high. As tested using multilevel modeling, EMA ratings of irritability were strongly and consistently associated with in-clinic, gold-standard measures of irritability. Further, EMA ratings of irritability were significantly related to subjective frustration during a laboratory task eliciting frustrative nonreward. Irritability levels exhibited an expected graduated pattern across diagnostic groups, and the different EMA items measuring irritability were significantly associated with one another within all groups, supporting the transdiagnostic phenomenology of irritability. Additional analyses utilized EMA ratings of anxiety as a comparison with respect to convergent validity and transdiagnostic phenomenology. The results support new measurement tools that can be used in future studies of irritability and frustrative nonreward.
Herbicides with soil-residual activity have the potential for carryover into subsequent crops, resulting in injury to sensitive crops and limiting productivity if severe. The increased use of soil-residual herbicides in the United States for management of troublesome weeds in corn- and soybean-cropping systems has potential to result in more cases of carryover. Soil management practices have different effects on the soil environment, potentially influencing herbicide degradation and likelihood of carryover. Field experiments were conducted at three sites in 2019 and 2020 to determine the effects of corn (clopyralid and mesotrione) and soybean (fomesafen and imazethapyr) herbicides applied in the fall at reduced rates (25% and 50% of labeled rates) and three soil management practices (tillage, no-tillage, and a fall-established cereal rye cover crop) on subsequent growth and productivity of the cereal rye cover crop and the soybean and corn crops, respectively. Most response variables (cereal rye biomass and crop canopy cover at cover crop termination in the spring, early-season crop stand and herbicide injury ratings, and crop yield) were not affected by herbicide carryover. Corn yield was lower when soil was managed with a cereal rye cover crop compared with tillage at all three sites, while yield was lower for no-till compared with tillage at two sites. Soybean yield was lower when managed with a cereal rye cover crop compared with tillage and no-till at one site. Findings from this research indicate a low carryover risk for these herbicides across site-years when label rotational restrictions are followed and environmental conditions favorable for herbicide degradation exist, regardless of soil management practice on silt loam or silty clay loam soil types in the U.S. Midwest region.
Although China remains the world’s most prolific death-penalty jurisdiction, it has also reportedly reduced executions in the twenty-first century. China achieved this reduction in part through the use of a nominal capital sentence called “suspended execution.” The success of suspended execution as a diversionary tool has produced calls for its introduction elsewhere. However, there has been no empirical research on suspended execution outside China. This article fills this gap by identifying neighbouring countries where suspended-execution proposals have been considered, determining why these countries considered it, and examining how proposals were structured. We identify four Asian jurisdictions—Taiwan, Japan, Vietnam, and Indonesia. We find that all of these countries looked to China for inspiration; each did so independently and for reasons unrelated to China’s death-penalty reforms. Our findings provide insights about capital punishment in Asia, the appeal of suspended execution, and the role of China in regional penal practice.
Severe mental illness (SMI) is associated with increased stroke risk, but little is known about how SMI relates to stroke prognosis and receipt of acute care.
To determine the association between SMI and stroke outcomes and receipt of process-of-care quality indicators (such as timely admission to stroke unit).
We conducted a cohort study using routinely collected linked data-sets, including adults with a first hospital admission for stroke in Scotland during 1991–2014, with process-of-care quality indicator data available from 2010. We identified pre-existing schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depression from hospital records. We used logistic regression to evaluate 30-day, 1-year and 5-year mortality and receipt of process-of-care quality indicators by pre-existing SMI, adjusting for sociodemographic and clinical factors. We used Cox regression to evaluate further stroke and vascular events (stroke and myocardial infarction).
Among 228 699 patients who had had a stroke, 1186 (0.5%), 859 (0.4%), 7308 (3.2%) had schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depression, respectively. Overall, median follow-up was 2.6 years. Compared with adults without a record of mental illness, 30-day mortality was higher for schizophrenia (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.33, 95% CI 1.16–1.52), bipolar disorder (aOR = 1.37, 95% CI 1.18–1.60) and major depression (aOR = 1.11, 95% CI 1.05–1.18). Each disorder was also associated with marked increased risk of 1-year and 5-year mortality and further stroke and vascular events. There were no clear differences in receipt of process-of-care quality indicators.
Pre-existing SMI was associated with higher risks of mortality and further vascular events. Urgent action is needed to better understand and address the reasons for these disparities.
Public pensions in the United States face an impending funding crisis in the wake of the financial crisis and the COVID-19 recession. Many cities and states will struggle to meet these growing obligations without major cuts in government services, reneging on pension promises, or raising taxes. This Element examines the development of the pension crisis through the lens of political economy. We analyze the knowledge and incentive problems inherent in the institutional structure, governance, and accounting of public pensions. We conclude by offering several institutional, governance, and reporting reforms to address the pension funding crisis.
In the UK, acute mental healthcare is provided by in-patient wards and crisis resolution teams. Readmission to acute care following discharge is common. Acute day units (ADUs) are also provided in some areas.
To assess predictors of readmission to acute mental healthcare following discharge in England, including availability of ADUs.
We enrolled a national cohort of adults discharged from acute mental healthcare in the English National Health Service (NHS) between 2013 and 2015, determined the risk of readmission to either in-patient or crisis teams, and used multivariable, multilevel logistic models to evaluate predictors of readmission.
Of a total of 231 998 eligible individuals discharged from acute mental healthcare, 49 547 (21.4%) were readmitted within 6 months, with a median time to readmission of 34 days (interquartile range 10–88 days). Most variation in readmission (98%) was attributable to individual patient-level rather than provider (trust)-level effects (2.0%). Risk of readmission was not associated with local availability of ADUs (adjusted odds ratio 0.96, 95% CI 0.80–1.15). Statistically significant elevated risks were identified for participants who were female, older, single, from Black or mixed ethnic groups, or from more deprived areas. Clinical predictors included shorter index admission, psychosis and being an in-patient at baseline.
Relapse and readmission to acute mental healthcare are common following discharge and occur early. Readmission was not influenced significantly by trust-level variables including availability of ADUs. More support for relapse prevention and symptom management may be required following discharge from acute mental healthcare.
Physical health of psychiatric inpatients is worse than the general population. Physical health monitoring of these patients can have positive effects on outcomes. Birmingham and Solihull Mental Health Foundation Trust (BSMHFT) states that a physical health assessment (PHA) should be completed within 72 hours of admission. This comprises a physical health form (PHF) and minimum data set (MDS): BP, BMI, TB and BBV status, alcohol and drug screen, smoking status, Hba1c and lipids. In a 2017 audit, compliance was shown to need improvement, with 28.3% of admissions not having a PHF documented.
To assess whether PHAs for new admissions to the Oleaster, Birmingham during the first wave of COVID-19 were completed in line with trust policy
To compare findings with a previous audit
To make recommendations to improve inpatient physical health and compliance with trust policy
A retrospective audit was conducted, with PHA details accessed via the electronic medical records system RiO. Admissions from 16/03/2020-30/06/2020 were accessed and 158 admissions (155 patients) were included. 21 admissions were excluded as they were internal transfers; only data from the initial admission were included. Data were collected by 2 medical students and a psychiatry trainee using a data collection tool. Data were recorded and analysed on Excel.
Of 158 admissions, 81 had PHFs (51.3%). 59 were completed within 72 hours of admission (34.3%); 39 were completed fully (24.7%). Of incomplete PHFs, 2 explicitly stated incompletion due to COVID-19. 22 PHFs were created but not completed within 72 hours. 15 gave a deferral reason e.g., refusal to consent or agitation. For 77 admissions (47.3%), no assessment was documented, with no reason given.
2 admissions (1.3%) recorded the full MDS within 72 hours of admission.
2 admissions (1.3%) had fully complete PHAs (PHF and MDS) within 72 hours of admission, fulfilling trust policy.
51.3% of admissions had a PHF, with 34.3% documented within 72 hours of admission. However, only 1.3% of admissions fulfilled trust policy of both a completed PHF and MDS within 72 hours of admission. There were more admissions without a PHF than in the previous 2017 audit; 47.33% compared to 28.3% previously. Given trust targets that a PHA should be fully completed for 100% of admissions, it was found that the Oleaster did not meet these guidelines during this period and improvements must be made to maintain integrity of patient care.
The 2020 update of the Canadian Stroke Best Practice Recommendations (CSBPR) for the Secondary Prevention of Stroke includes current evidence-based recommendations and expert opinions intended for use by clinicians across a broad range of settings. They provide guidance for the prevention of ischemic stroke recurrence through the identification and management of modifiable vascular risk factors. Recommendations address triage, diagnostic testing, lifestyle behaviors, vaping, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, atrial fibrillation, other cardiac conditions, antiplatelet and anticoagulant therapies, and carotid and vertebral artery disease. This update of the previous 2017 guideline contains several new or revised recommendations. Recommendations regarding triage and initial assessment of acute transient ischemic attack (TIA) and minor stroke have been simplified, and selected aspects of the etiological stroke workup are revised. Updated treatment recommendations based on new evidence have been made for dual antiplatelet therapy for TIA and minor stroke; anticoagulant therapy for atrial fibrillation; embolic strokes of undetermined source; low-density lipoprotein lowering; hypertriglyceridemia; diabetes treatment; and patent foramen ovale management. A new section has been added to provide practical guidance regarding temporary interruption of antithrombotic therapy for surgical procedures. Cancer-associated ischemic stroke is addressed. A section on virtual care delivery of secondary stroke prevention services in included to highlight a shifting paradigm of care delivery made more urgent by the global pandemic. In addition, where appropriate, sex differences as they pertain to treatments have been addressed. The CSBPR include supporting materials such as implementation resources to facilitate the adoption of evidence into practice and performance measures to enable monitoring of uptake and effectiveness of recommendations.