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The present work investigated the application of detailed airborne images and a resistivity soil sensor (Veris 3100) to detect soil and crop spatial variability to assist in orchard management. The research was carried out in a peach orchard (Prunus persica). Soil apparent electrical conductivity (ECa), NDVI from a multispectral image (0.25 m/pixel) and soil properties at 40 sampling points (0–30 cm) were acquired. The ECa was standardized at 25°C. It showed a strong relationship with former landforms, altered by land levelling. A positive correlation of EC25 with EC1:5, water holding capacity at −1500 kPa and soil depth was found. NDVI was correlated only in the textural fractions coarser than clay. Two types of management zones were proposed: a) to improve the water holding capacity of soils and b) to regulate tree vigour and yield.
Aggression and violence represent a significant public health concern and a clinical challenge for the mental healthcare provider. A great deal has been revealed regarding the neurobiology of violence and aggression, and an integration of this body of knowledge will ultimately serve to advance clinical diagnostics and therapeutic interventions. We will review here the latest findings regarding the neurobiology of aggression and violence. First, we will introduce the construct of aggression, with a focus on issues related to its heterogeneity, as well as the importance of refining the aggression phenotype in order to reduce pathophysiologic variability. Next we will examine the neuroanatomy of aggression and violence, focusing on regional volumes, functional studies, and interregional connectivity. Significant emphasis will be on the amygdala, as well as amygdala–frontal circuitry. Then we will turn our attention to the neurochemistry and molecular genetics of aggression and violence, examining the extensive findings on the serotonergic system, as well as the growing literature on the dopaminergic and vasopressinergic systems. We will also address the contribution of steroid hormones, namely, cortisol and testosterone. Finally, we will summarize these findings with a focus on reconciling inconsistencies and potential clinical implications; and, then we will suggest areas of focus for future directions in the field.
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