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Cognitive theories of depression contend that biased cognitive information processing plays a causal role in the development of depression. Extensive research shows that deeper processing of negative and/or shallower processing of positive self-descriptors (i.e., negative and positive self-schemas) predicts current and future depression in adults and children. However, the neural correlates of the development of self-referent encoding are poorly understood. We examined children's self-referential processing using the self-referent encoding task (SRET) collected from 74 children at ages 6, 9, and 12; around age 10, these children also contributed structural magnetic resonance imaging data. From age 6 to age 12, both positive and negative self-referential processing showed mean-level growth, with positive self-schemas increasing relatively faster than negative ones. Further, voxel-based morphometry showed that slower growth in positive self-schemas was associated with lower regional gray matter volume (GMV) in ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC). Our results suggest that smaller regional GMV within vlPFC, a critical region for regulatory control in affective processing and emotion development, may have implications for the development of depressogenic self-referential processing in mid-to-late childhood.
InGaN films were successfully fabricated using radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering technique with a sputtering target of pure In and Ga metal alloys under a flow of nitrogen. Films were deposited on quartz substrates, with the ratio of In to Ga varied from 0.46 to 0.85 in the alloys. The structures and compositions have been studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX), respectively. Multiple crystallographic phases have been observed indicating phase segregation and inhomogeneous distribution of the metal compositions in the films. The existence of wurtzite structures has been observed in all samples, with the In percentage (y) in a crystalline phase calculated from the XRD being less than the total In percentage (x) in each film as determined by the EDX spectroscopy. The (0002) orientation has been observed in all films, and the (10-11) orientation has been observed for x = 0.46 and 0.70 only. The optical transmission and absorbance of the films were studied by the spectrophotometry technique, which indicate that the dominant phases in all samples are amorphous. Consequently, the corresponding optical bandgaps have been characterized. Hall Effect measurements were made in 0.55 T magnetic field at room temperature to characterize the electrical conductivity, free carrier concentration, and mobility.
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