I used a variety of sources to understand the influence of political discourse. The variables used for each analysis are described in this appendix. Measures of race-related statements for presidents or congressional members are consistently included in the analysis of political institutions and society. Thus, I began with these universal variables.
Race-Related Remarks of President: These are public statements made by the president that relate to racial and ethnic minority issues from 1955 to 2012. These statements include remarks made during campaign debates, campaign speeches, farewell speeches, inaugural addresses, speeches to the nation, radio addresses, news conferences, State of the Union Addresses, speeches to Congress that are non–State of the Union Addresses, local speeches (e.g., town hall speeches), college commencement addresses, party convention speeches, signing statements, and addresses to foreign legislatures and the UN General Assembly.
Race-Related Remarks in Congress: These are statements offered on the House floor that highlight racial and ethnic minority issues from 1995 to 2012. These statements include remarks made during floor debate and one-minute floor speeches in the House of Representatives.
THE BACKLASH AND PRESIDENTIAL APPROVAL
Presidential Approval: As reported by the Gallup Poll, this is the percentage of individuals who approve of the job the president is doing. When I examined quarterly data, this measure was the average approval rating across all the polls collected over a three-month period. Similarly, when I examined monthly data, this measure was the average approval ratingacross all the polls taken in a month. Weekly approval in this study incorporates a pooled data set of 119 different Gallup and USA Today/Gallup polls surveyed from January 30, 2009, through January 1, 2011.
Black Approval: This is the percentage of individuals who identify as black and approve of the job the president is doing.
White Approval: This is the percentage of individuals who identify as white and approve of the job the president is doing.
Shirley Sherrod: This is a time variable that indicates the four weeks following the firing of Shirley Sherrod, a USDA employee who was forced to resign after a video emerged with her making racially charged remarks on July 19, 2010. It was later found that Sherrod's remarks were taken out of context.