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Policies that promote conversion of antibiotics from intravenous to oral route administration are considered “low hanging fruit” for hospital antimicrobial stewardship programs. We developed a simple metric based on digestive days of therapy divided by total days of therapy for targeted agents and a method for hospital comparisons. External comparisons may help identify opportunities for improving prospective implementation.
U.S. veterans report high rates of traumatic experiences and mental health symptomology [e.g. posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)]. The stress sensitization hypothesis posits experiences of adversity sensitize individuals to stress reactions which can lead to greater psychiatric problems. We extend this hypothesis by exploring how multiple adversities such as early childhood adversity, combat-related trauma, and military sexual trauma related to heterogeneity in stress over time and, subsequently, greater risk for PTSD.
1230 veterans were recruited for an observational, longitudinal study. Veterans responded to questionnaires on PTSD, stress, and traumatic experiences five times over an 18-month study period. We used latent transition analysis to understand how heterogeneity in adverse experiences is related to transition into stress trajectory classes. We also explored how transition patterns related to PTSD symptomology.
Across all models, we found support for stress sensitization. In general, combat trauma in combinations with other types of adverse experiences, namely early childhood adversity and military sexual trauma, imposed a greater probability of transitioning into higher risk stress profiles. We also showed differential effects of early childhood and military-specific adversity on PTSD symptomology.
The present study rigorously integrates both military-specific and early life adversity into analysis on stress sensitivity, and is the first to examine how sensitivity might affect trajectories of stress over time. Our study provides a nuanced, and specific, look at who is risk for sensitization to stress based on previous traumatic experiences as well as what transition patterns are associated with greater PTSD symptomology.
We present a detailed overview of the cosmological surveys that we aim to carry out with Phase 1 of the Square Kilometre Array (SKA1) and the science that they will enable. We highlight three main surveys: a medium-deep continuum weak lensing and low-redshift spectroscopic HI galaxy survey over 5 000 deg2; a wide and deep continuum galaxy and HI intensity mapping (IM) survey over 20 000 deg2 from
$z = 0.35$
to 3; and a deep, high-redshift HI IM survey over 100 deg2 from
$z = 3$
to 6. Taken together, these surveys will achieve an array of important scientific goals: measuring the equation of state of dark energy out to
$z \sim 3$
with percent-level precision measurements of the cosmic expansion rate; constraining possible deviations from General Relativity on cosmological scales by measuring the growth rate of structure through multiple independent methods; mapping the structure of the Universe on the largest accessible scales, thus constraining fundamental properties such as isotropy, homogeneity, and non-Gaussianity; and measuring the HI density and bias out to
$z = 6$
. These surveys will also provide highly complementary clustering and weak lensing measurements that have independent systematic uncertainties to those of optical and near-infrared (NIR) surveys like Euclid, LSST, and WFIRST leading to a multitude of synergies that can improve constraints significantly beyond what optical or radio surveys can achieve on their own. This document, the 2018 Red Book, provides reference technical specifications, cosmological parameter forecasts, and an overview of relevant systematic effects for the three key surveys and will be regularly updated by the Cosmology Science Working Group in the run up to start of operations and the Key Science Programme of SKA1.
In 2009, a monovalent H1N1 influenza (H1N1) vaccine was manufactured in response to the pandemic of 2009 influenza A (H1N1) virus infection that emerged earlier in the year. The overall allocation of the H1N1 vaccine to the states was the purview of the federal government; thereafter, the states were accountable for distributing and reporting the number of doses of H1N1 vaccine administered weekly. This report describes how the Wisconsin Immunization Registry (WIR) was updated and used during the H1N1 immunization campaign and its role in meeting the federal H1N1 immunization reporting requirements. Activities to enhance the registry's functionality included the creation of a rapid data entry screen for providers to facilitate the entry of data into the WIR, and enhancing the reporting capabilities of the WIR to generate H1N1-related reports at the local level. Results of these activities included an increase in the number of WIR users, higher reported numbers of seasonal influenza doses administered, and the establishment of data streams from new users. Data completeness, the ability to accurately forecast doses needed, and validating administered doses were challenges in the changing environment.
(Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2012;6:402-407)
Pre-irradiated thermodynamic and microstructural properties of nuclear fuels form the necessary set of data against which to gauge fuel performance and irradiation damage evolution. This paper summarizes recent efforts in mixed-oxide and minor actinide-bearing mixed-oxide ceramic fuels fabrication and characterization at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Ceramic fuels (U1-x-y-zPuxAmyNpz)O2 fabricated in the compositional ranges of 0.19≤x≤0.3 Pu, 0≤y≤0.05 Am, and 0≤z≤0.03 Np exhibited a uniform crystalline face-centered cubic phase with an average grain size of 14μm; however, electron microprobe analysis revealed segregation of NpO2 in minor actinide-bearing fuels. Immersion density and porosity analysis demonstrated an average density of 92.4% theoretical for mixed-oxide fuels and an average density of 89.5% theoretical density for minor actinide-bearing mixed-oxide fuels. Examined fuels exhibited mean thermal expansion value of 12.56×10−6/°C-1 for temperature range (100°C<T<1500°C) and ambient temperature Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio of 169 GPa and of 0.327, respectively. Internal dissipation as determined from mechanical resonances of these ceramic fuels has shown promise as a tool to gauge microstructural integrity and to interrogate fundamental properties.