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United States dentists prescribe 10% of all outpatient antibiotics. Assessing appropriateness of antibiotic prescribing has been challenging due to a lack of guidelines for oral infections. In 2019, the American Dental Association (ADA) published clinical practice guidelines (CPG) on the management of acute oral infections. Our objective was to describe baseline national antibiotic prescribing for acute oral infections prior to the release of the ADA CPG and to identify patient-level variables associated with an antibiotic prescription.
We performed an analysis of national VA data from January 1, 2017, to December 31, 2017. We identified cases of acute oral infections using International Classification of Disease, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM) codes. Antibiotics prescribed by a dentist within ±7 days of a visit were included. Multivariable logistic regression identified patient-level variables associated with an antibiotic prescription.
Of the 470,039 VA dental visits with oral infections coded, 12% of patient visits with irreversible pulpitis, 17% with apical periodontitis, and 28% with acute apical abscess received antibiotics. Although the median days’ supply was 7, prolonged use of antibiotics was frequent (≥8 days, 42%–49%). Patients with high-risk cardiac conditions, prosthetic joints, and endodontic, implant, and oral and maxillofacial surgery dental procedures were more likely to receive antibiotics.
Most treatments of irreversible pulpitis and apical periodontitis cases were concordant with new ADA guidelines. However, in cases where antibiotics were prescribed, prolonged antibiotic courses >7 days were frequent. These findings demonstrate opportunities for the new ADA guidelines to standardize and improve dental prescribing practices.
This study reports on the changes in stress, anxiety, and depressive symptoms of subscribers after 3 months using Text4Hope, a supportive text messaging program designed to provide support during the pandemic.
Standardized self-report measures were used to evaluate perceived stress (measured with the Perceived Stress Scale-10 [PSS-10]), anxiety (measured with the General Anxiety Disorder Scale 7 [GAD-7]), and depressive symptoms (measured with the Patient Health Questionnaire [PHQ-9]), at baseline and 3rd month (n = 373).
After 3 months of using Text4Hope, subscribers’ self-reports revealed significant (p< 0.001) mean score reductions compared with baseline on: the GAD-7 by 22.7%, PHQ-9 by 10.3%, and PSS-10 scores by 5.7%. Reductions in inferred prevalence rates for moderate to high symptoms were also observed, with anxiety demonstrating the largest reduction (15.7%).
Observed Text4Hope-related reductions in psychological distress during COVID-19 indicate that Text4Hope is an effective, convenient, and accessible means of implementing a population-level psychological intervention.
The mechanism through which developmental programming of offspring overweight/obesity following in utero exposure to maternal overweight/obesity operates is unknown but may operate through biologic pathways involving offspring anthropometry at birth. Thus, we sought to examine to what extent the association between in utero exposure to maternal overweight/obesity and childhood overweight/obesity is mediated by birth anthropometry. Analyses were conducted on a retrospective cohort with data obtained from one hospital system. A natural effects model framework was used to estimate the natural direct effect and natural indirect effect of birth anthropometry (weight, length, head circumference, ponderal index, and small-for-gestational age [SGA] or large-for-gestational age [LGA]) for the association between pre-pregnancy maternal body mass index (BMI) category (overweight/obese vs normal weight) and offspring overweight/obesity in childhood. Models were adjusted for maternal and child socio-demographics. Three thousand nine hundred and fifty mother–child dyads were included in analyses (1467 [57.8%] of mothers and 913 [34.4%] of children were overweight/obese). Results suggest that a small percentage of the effect of maternal pre-pregnancy BMI overweight/obesity on offspring overweight/obesity operated through offspring anthropometry at birth (weight: 15.5%, length: 5.2%, head circumference: 8.5%, ponderal index: 2.2%, SGA: 2.9%, and LGA: 4.2%). There was a small increase in the percentage mediated when gestational diabetes or hypertensive disorders were added to the models. Our study suggests that some measures of birth anthropometry mediate the association between maternal pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity and offspring overweight/obesity in childhood and that the size of this mediated effect is small.
Psychiatric disorders are associated with increased risk of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and stroke, but it is not known whether the associations or the role of sociodemographic factors have changed over time.
To investigate the association between psychiatric disorders and IHD and stroke, by time period and sociodemographic factors.
We used Scottish population-based records from 1991 to 2015 to create retrospective cohorts with a hospital record for psychiatric disorders of interest (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or depression) or no record of hospital admission for mental illness. We estimated incidence and relative risks of IHD and stroke in people with versus without psychiatric disorders by calendar year, age, gender and area-based deprivation level.
In all cohorts, incidence of IHD (645 393 events) and stroke (276 073 events) decreased over time, but relative risks decreased for depression only. In 2015, at the mean age at event onset, relative risks were 2- to 2.5-fold higher in people with versus without a psychiatric disorder. Age at incidence of outcome differed by cohort, gender and socioeconomic status. Relative but not absolute risks were generally higher in women than men. Increasing deprivation conveys a greater absolute risk of IHD for people with bipolar disorder or depression.
Despite declines in absolute rates of IHD and stroke, relative risks remain high in those with versus without psychiatric disorders. Cardiovascular disease monitoring and prevention approaches may need to be tailored by psychiatric disorder and cardiovascular outcome, and be targeted, for example, by age and deprivation level.
The study examined (a) whether alcohol use subgroups could be identified among African Americans assessed from adolescence through early adulthood, and (b) whether subgroup membership was associated with the interaction between internalizing symptoms and antisocial behavior polygenic risk scores (PRSs) and environmental characteristics (i.e., parental monitoring, community disadvantage). Participants (N = 436) were initially recruited for an elementary school-based prevention trial in a Mid-Atlantic city. Youths reported on the frequency of their past year alcohol use from ages 14–26. DNA was obtained from participants at age 21. Internalizing symptoms and antisocial behavior PRSs were created based on a genome-wide association study (GWAS) conducted by Benke et al. (2014) and Tielbeek et al. (2017), respectively. Parental monitoring and community disadvantage were assessed at age 12. Four classes of past year alcohol use were identified: (a) early-onset, increasing; (b) late-onset, moderate use; (c) low steady; and (d) early-onset, decreasing. In high community disadvantaged settings, participants with a higher internalizing symptoms PRS were more likely to be in the early-onset, decreasing class than the low steady class. When exposed to elevated community disadvantage, participants with a higher antisocial behavior PRS were more likely to be in the early-onset, increasing class than the early-onset, decreasing and late-onset, moderate use classes.
In this cohort of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp hospital-onset bacteremia, isolated fluoroquinolone resistance had a larger relative impact on mortality than other phenotypic resistance patterns. This finding may support stewardship efforts targeting unnecessary fluoroquinolone use and increased attention from infection prevention and control departments.
Aging is associated with performance reductions in executive function and episodic memory, although there is substantial individual variability in cognition among older adults. One factor that may be positively associated with cognition in aging is physical activity. To date, few studies have objectively assessed physical activity in young and older adults, and examined whether physical activity is differentially associated with cognition in aging. Young (n=29, age 18–31 years) and older adults (n=31, ages 55–82 years) completed standardized neuropsychological testing to assess executive function and episodic memory capacities. An experimental face-name relational memory task was administered to augment assessment of episodic memory. Physical activity (total step count and step rate) was objectively assessed using an accelerometer, and hierarchical regressions were used to evaluate relationships between cognition and physical activity. Older adults performed more poorly on tasks of executive function and episodic memory. Physical activity was positively associated with a composite measure of visual episodic memory and face-name memory accuracy in older adults. Physical activity associations with cognition were independent of sedentary behavior, which was negatively correlated with memory performance. Physical activity was not associated with cognitive performance in younger adults. Physical activity is positively associated with episodic memory performance in aging. The relationship appears to be strongest for face-name relational memory and visual episodic memory, likely attributable to the fact that these tasks make strong demands on the hippocampus. The results suggest that physical activity relates to cognition in older, but not younger adults. (JINS, 2015, 21, 780–790)
Urban riparian plant communities exist at the interface between terrestrial and aquatic habitats, and they are rich sources of species biodiversity and ecosystem services. The periodic floods that promote species diversity in riparian plant communities also increase their vulnerability to nonnative plant invasions. Plant invasions are constrained by seed and suitable habitat availability. However, how seed dispersal and establishment limitations interact to shape nonnative plant invasions in riparian communities is poorly understood. We use Stream Visual Assessment Protocol data to evaluate the hydrological and geomorphological parameters that influence the seeding and establishment of six common nonnative species in urban riparian habitats: garlic mustard, purple loosestrife, reed canarygrass, common reed, Japanese knotweed, and multiflora rose. To address this objective, we analyzed stream reach data collected during a basin-wide environmental assessment of the extensively urbanized upper Niagara River watershed. We found limited support for our prediction that propagule limitation constrains the distribution of nonnative riparian species, likely because these species are well established in the study area. Instead, we found that opportune stream reach characteristics better predict the distribution of the common invasive riparian species—most notably open tree canopy. Given that there is widespread investment in urban riparian forest restoration to improve water quality, increase stream-bank stability, enhance wildlife habitat and promote recreation, our data suggest that riparian forests may provide the additional benefit of reducing the abundance of some, but not all, invasive plants.
In 1969, Robert E. Gregg collected five species of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in three Subarctic localities near the town of Churchill, Manitoba, Canada, which he documented in a 1972 publication in The Canadian Entomologist. To determine whether there have been any additions to the local fauna – as might be predicted to occur in response to a warming climate and increased traffic to the Port of Churchill in the intervening 40 years – we re-collected ants from the same localities in 2012. We identified the ants we collected from Gregg’s sampling sites using both traditional morphological preparations and DNA barcoding. In addition, we examined specimens from Gregg’s initial collection that are accessioned at the Field Museum of Natural History (Chicago, Illinois, United States of America). Using this integrative approach we report seven species present at the same sites Gregg sampled 40 years earlier. We conclude that the apparent increase is likely not due to any arrivals from more southerly distributed ants, but to the increased resolution provided by DNA barcodes to resident species complexes with a complicated history. We provide a brief synopsis of these results and their taxonomic context.
The National Healthcare Safety Network classifies breast operations as clean procedures with an expected 1%–2% surgical site infection (SSI) incidence. We assessed differences in SSI incidence following mastectomy with and without immediate reconstruction in a large, geographically diverse population.
Retrospective cohort study
Commercially insured women aged 18–64 years with ICD-9-CM procedure or CPT-4 codes for mastectomy from January 1, 2004 through December 31, 2011
Incident SSIs within 180 days after surgery were identified by ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes. The incidences of SSI after mastectomy with and without immediate reconstruction were compared using the χ2 test.
From 2004 to 2011, 18,696 mastectomy procedures among 18,085 women were identified, with immediate reconstruction in 10,836 procedures (58%). The incidence of SSI within 180 days following mastectomy with or without reconstruction was 8.1% (1,520 of 18,696). In total, 49% of SSIs were identified within 30 days post-mastectomy, 24.5% were identified 31–60 days post-mastectomy, 10.5% were identified 61–90 days post-mastectomy, and 15.7% were identified 91–180 days post-mastectomy. The incidences of SSI were 5.0% (395 of 7,860) after mastectomy only, 10.3% (848 of 8,217) after mastectomy plus implant, 10.7% (207 of 1,942) after mastectomy plus flap, and 10.3% (70 of 677) after mastectomy plus flap and implant (P<.001). The SSI risk was higher after bilateral compared with unilateral mastectomy with immediate reconstruction (11.4% vs 9.4%, P=.001) than without (6.1% vs 4.7%, P=.021) immediate reconstruction.
SSI incidence was twice that after mastectomy with immediate reconstruction than after mastectomy alone. Only 49% of SSIs were coded within 30 days after operation. Our results suggest that stratification by procedure type facilitates comparison of SSI rates after breast operations between facilities.
To examine the use of vitamin D supplements during infancy among the participants in an international infant feeding trial.
Information about vitamin D supplementation was collected through a validated FFQ at the age of 2 weeks and monthly between the ages of 1 month and 6 months.
Infants (n 2159) with a biological family member affected by type 1 diabetes and with increased human leucocyte antigen-conferred susceptibility to type 1 diabetes from twelve European countries, the USA, Canada and Australia.
Daily use of vitamin D supplements was common during the first 6 months of life in Northern and Central Europe (>80 % of the infants), with somewhat lower rates observed in Southern Europe (>60 %). In Canada, vitamin D supplementation was more common among exclusively breast-fed than other infants (e.g. 71 % v. 44 % at 6 months of age). Less than 2 % of infants in the USA and Australia received any vitamin D supplementation. Higher gestational age, older maternal age and longer maternal education were study-wide associated with greater use of vitamin D supplements.
Most of the infants received vitamin D supplements during the first 6 months of life in the European countries, whereas in Canada only half and in the USA and Australia very few were given supplementation.