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Little is known about Se intakes and status in very young New Zealand children. However, Se intakes below recommendations and lower Se status compared with international studies have been reported in New Zealand (particularly South Island) adults. The Baby-Led Introduction to SolidS (BLISS) randomised controlled trial compared a modified version of baby-led weaning (infants feed themselves rather than being spoon-fed), with traditional spoon-feeding (Control). Weighed 3-d diet records were collected and plasma Se concentration measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). In total, 101 (BLISS n 50, Control n 51) 12-month-old toddlers provided complete data. The OR of Se intakes below the estimated average requirement (EAR) was no different between BLISS and Control (OR: 0·89; 95 % CI 0·39, 2·03), and there was no difference in mean plasma Se concentration between groups (0·04 μmol/l; 95 % CI −0·03, 0·11). In an adjusted model, consuming breast milk was associated with lower plasma Se concentrations (–0·12 μmol/l; 95 % CI −0·19, −0·04). Of the food groups other than infant milk (breast milk or infant formula), ‘breads and cereals’ contributed the most to Se intakes (12 % of intake). In conclusion, Se intakes and plasma Se concentrations of 12-month-old New Zealand toddlers were no different between those who had followed a baby-led approach to complementary feeding and those who followed traditional spoon-feeding. However, more than half of toddlers had Se intakes below the EAR.
Resistant starch 2 (RS2) may offer therapeutic value to irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients particularly in combination with minimally fermented fibre, but tolerability data are lacking. The present study evaluated the tolerability of RS2, sugarcane bagasse and their combination in IBS patients and healthy controls. Following baseline, participants consumed the fibres in escalating doses lasting 3 d each: RS2 (10, 15 and 20 g/d); sugarcane bagasse (5, 10 and 15 g/d); and their combination (20, 25 and 30 g/d). Gastrointestinal symptoms were assessed daily. Six IBS patients and five controls were recruited. No differences in overall symptoms from baseline were found across the fibre doses (IBS, P = 0⋅586; controls, P = 0⋅687). For IBS patients, all RS2 doses led to increased bloating. One IBS patient did not tolerate the low combination dose and another the high sugarcane bagasse dose. Supplementation of RS2 ≤ 20 g/d caused mild symptoms and was generally tolerated in IBS patients even when combined with minimally fermented fibre.
United States dentists prescribe 10% of all outpatient antibiotics. Assessing appropriateness of antibiotic prescribing has been challenging due to a lack of guidelines for oral infections. In 2019, the American Dental Association (ADA) published clinical practice guidelines (CPG) on the management of acute oral infections. Our objective was to describe baseline national antibiotic prescribing for acute oral infections prior to the release of the ADA CPG and to identify patient-level variables associated with an antibiotic prescription.
We performed an analysis of national VA data from January 1, 2017, to December 31, 2017. We identified cases of acute oral infections using International Classification of Disease, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM) codes. Antibiotics prescribed by a dentist within ±7 days of a visit were included. Multivariable logistic regression identified patient-level variables associated with an antibiotic prescription.
Of the 470,039 VA dental visits with oral infections coded, 12% of patient visits with irreversible pulpitis, 17% with apical periodontitis, and 28% with acute apical abscess received antibiotics. Although the median days’ supply was 7, prolonged use of antibiotics was frequent (≥8 days, 42%–49%). Patients with high-risk cardiac conditions, prosthetic joints, and endodontic, implant, and oral and maxillofacial surgery dental procedures were more likely to receive antibiotics.
Most treatments of irreversible pulpitis and apical periodontitis cases were concordant with new ADA guidelines. However, in cases where antibiotics were prescribed, prolonged antibiotic courses >7 days were frequent. These findings demonstrate opportunities for the new ADA guidelines to standardize and improve dental prescribing practices.
The therapeutic value of specific fibres is partly dependent on their fermentation characteristics. Some fibres are rapidly degraded with the generation of gases that induce symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), while more slowly or non-fermentable fibres may be more suitable. More work is needed to profile a comprehensive range of fibres to determine suitability for IBS. Using a rapid in vitro fermentation model, gas production and metabolite profiles of a range of established and novel fibres were compared. Fibre substrates (n 15) were added to faecal slurries from three healthy donors for 4 h with gas production measured using real-time headspace sampling. Concentrations of SCFA and ammonia were analysed using GC and enzymatic assay, respectively. Gas production followed three patterns: rapid (≥60 ml/g over 4 h) for fructans, carrot fibre and maize-derived xylo-oligosaccharide (XOS); mild (30–60 ml/g) for partially hydrolysed guar gum, almond shell-derived XOS and one type of high-amylose resistant starch 2 (RS2) and minimal (no differences with blank controls) for methylcellulose, another high-amylose RS2, acetylated or butyrylated RS2, RS4, acacia gum and sugarcane bagasse. Gas production correlated positively with total SCFA (r 0·80, P < 0·001) and negatively with ammonia concentrations (r –0·68, P < 0·001). Proportions of specific SCFA varied: fermentation of carrot fibre, XOS and acetylated RS2 favoured acetate, while fructans favoured butyrate. Gas production and metabolite profiles differed between fibre types and within fibre classes over a physiologically relevant 4-h time course. Several fibres resisted rapid fermentation and may be candidates for clinical trials in IBS patients.
Review findings on the role of dietary patterns in preventing depression are inconsistent, possibly due to variation in assessment of dietary exposure and depression. We studied the association between dietary patterns and depressive symptoms in six population-based cohorts and meta-analysed the findings using a standardised approach that defined dietary exposure, depression assessment and covariates.
Included were cross-sectional data from 23 026 participants in six cohorts: InCHIANTI (Italy), LASA, NESDA, HELIUS (the Netherlands), ALSWH (Australia) and Whitehall II (UK). Analysis of incidence was based on three cohorts with repeated measures of depressive symptoms at 5–6 years of follow-up in 10 721 participants: Whitehall II, InCHIANTI, ALSWH. Three a priori dietary patterns, Mediterranean diet score (MDS), Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI-2010), and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet were investigated in relation to depressive symptoms. Analyses at the cohort-level adjusted for a fixed set of confounders, meta-analysis used a random-effects model.
Cross-sectional and prospective analyses showed statistically significant inverse associations of the three dietary patterns with depressive symptoms (continuous and dichotomous). In cross-sectional analysis, the association of diet with depressive symptoms using a cut-off yielded an adjusted OR of 0.87 (95% confidence interval 0.84–0.91) for MDS, 0.93 (0.88–0.98) for AHEI-2010, and 0.94 (0.87–1.01) for DASH. Similar associations were observed prospectively: 0.88 (0.80–0.96) for MDS; 0.95 (0.84–1.06) for AHEI-2010; 0.90 (0.84–0.97) for DASH.
Population-scale observational evidence indicates that adults following a healthy dietary pattern have fewer depressive symptoms and lower risk of developing depressive symptoms.
Reducing multifactorial stunting is a priority for the 2025 WHO Global Nutrition Target. In the plant-based complementary diets of low-income countries, deficits in several growth-limiting micronutrients may contribute to stunting. Hence the intercorrelation between multiple micronutrients in terms of their intake and impact is important. Therefore, our aim was to develop a nutrient quality score using principal component analysis (PCA) in a sample of Indonesian infants at 6, 9 and 12 months of age and to evaluate the association of the scores with linear growth and stunting. At 6 months, 217 infants were recruited from Sumedang District, West Java, with 195 and 189 followed at 9 and 12 months of age, respectively. Complementary food intakes were assessed using 2-d weighed food records. Eight correlated nutrients (vitamin A, ascorbic acid, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, Ca, Fe and Zn) were summarised using PCA into a single nutrient pattern that explained 56–65 % of the total variability. Nutrient quality scores were related to demographic, inflammation and complementary food indicator variables in hypothesised directions. While no significant relationships were apparent with linear growth, the odds of being stunted at ages 9 and 12 months was lower for infants with a higher nutrient quality score at 9 months (OR 0·75, 95 % CI 0·59, 0·95 and OR 0·69, 95 % CI 0·55, 0·88), respectively, for the fully adjusted models. A data-driven nutrient quality score is a valid tool to assess the influence of nutrient quality on stunting in at-risk infants.
Irregularities plague elections in developing democracies. The international community spends hundreds of millions of dollars on election observation, with little robust evidence that it consistently improves electoral integrity. We conducted a randomized control trial to measure the effect of an intervention to detect and deter electoral irregularities employing a nation-wide sample of polling stations in Uganda using scalable information and communications technology (ICT). In treatment stations, researchers delivered letters to polling officials stating that tallies would be photographed using smartphones and compared against official results. Compared to stations with no letters, the letters increased the frequency of posted tallies by polling center managers in compliance with the law; decreased the number of sequential digits found on tallies – a fraud indicator; and decreased the vote share for the incumbent president in some specifications. Our results demonstrate that a cost-effective citizen and ICT intervention can improve electoral integrity in emerging democracies.
In 1969, Robert E. Gregg collected five species of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in three Subarctic localities near the town of Churchill, Manitoba, Canada, which he documented in a 1972 publication in The Canadian Entomologist. To determine whether there have been any additions to the local fauna – as might be predicted to occur in response to a warming climate and increased traffic to the Port of Churchill in the intervening 40 years – we re-collected ants from the same localities in 2012. We identified the ants we collected from Gregg’s sampling sites using both traditional morphological preparations and DNA barcoding. In addition, we examined specimens from Gregg’s initial collection that are accessioned at the Field Museum of Natural History (Chicago, Illinois, United States of America). Using this integrative approach we report seven species present at the same sites Gregg sampled 40 years earlier. We conclude that the apparent increase is likely not due to any arrivals from more southerly distributed ants, but to the increased resolution provided by DNA barcodes to resident species complexes with a complicated history. We provide a brief synopsis of these results and their taxonomic context.
After more than half a century of community support related to the science of “solar activity”, IAU's Commission 10 was formally discontinued in 2015, to be succeeded by C.E2 with the same area of responsibility. On this occasion, we look back at the growth of the scientific disciplines involved around the world over almost a full century. Solar activity and fields of research looking into the related physics of the heliosphere continue to be vibrant and growing, with currently over 2,000 refereed publications appearing per year from over 4,000 unique authors, publishing in dozens of distinct journals and meeting in dozens of workshops and conferences each year. The size of the rapidly growing community and of the observational and computational data volumes, along with the multitude of connections into other branches of astrophysics, pose significant challenges; aspects of these challenges are beginning to be addressed through, among others, the development of new systems of literature reviews, machine-searchable archives for data and publications, and virtual observatories. As customary in these reports, we highlight some of the research topics that have seen particular interest over the most recent triennium, specifically active-region magnetic fields, coronal thermal structure, coronal seismology, flares and eruptions, and the variability of solar activity on long time scales. We close with a collection of developments, discoveries, and surprises that illustrate the range and dynamics of the discipline.
The different compartments of the gastrointestinal tract are inhabited by populations of micro-organisms. By far the most important predominant populations are in the colon where a true symbiosis with the host exists that is a key for well-being and health. For such a microbiota, ‘normobiosis’ characterises a composition of the gut ‘ecosystem’ in which micro-organisms with potential health benefits predominate in number over potentially harmful ones, in contrast to ‘dysbiosis’, in which one or a few potentially harmful micro-organisms are dominant, thus creating a disease-prone situation. The present document has been written by a group of both academic and industry experts (in the ILSI Europe Prebiotic Expert Group and Prebiotic Task Force, respectively). It does not aim to propose a new definition of a prebiotic nor to identify which food products are classified as prebiotic but rather to validate and expand the original idea of the prebiotic concept (that can be translated in ‘prebiotic effects’), defined as: ‘The selective stimulation of growth and/or activity(ies) of one or a limited number of microbial genus(era)/species in the gut microbiota that confer(s) health benefits to the host.’ Thanks to the methodological and fundamental research of microbiologists, immense progress has very recently been made in our understanding of the gut microbiota. A large number of human intervention studies have been performed that have demonstrated that dietary consumption of certain food products can result in statistically significant changes in the composition of the gut microbiota in line with the prebiotic concept. Thus the prebiotic effect is now a well-established scientific fact. The more data are accumulating, the more it will be recognised that such changes in the microbiota's composition, especially increase in bifidobacteria, can be regarded as a marker of intestinal health. The review is divided in chapters that cover the major areas of nutrition research where a prebiotic effect has tentatively been investigated for potential health benefits. The prebiotic effect has been shown to associate with modulation of biomarkers and activity(ies) of the immune system. Confirming the studies in adults, it has been demonstrated that, in infant nutrition, the prebiotic effect includes a significant change of gut microbiota composition, especially an increase of faecal concentrations of bifidobacteria. This concomitantly improves stool quality (pH, SCFA, frequency and consistency), reduces the risk of gastroenteritis and infections, improves general well-being and reduces the incidence of allergic symptoms such as atopic eczema. Changes in the gut microbiota composition are classically considered as one of the many factors involved in the pathogenesis of either inflammatory bowel disease or irritable bowel syndrome. The use of particular food products with a prebiotic effect has thus been tested in clinical trials with the objective to improve the clinical activity and well-being of patients with such disorders. Promising beneficial effects have been demonstrated in some preliminary studies, including changes in gut microbiota composition (especially increase in bifidobacteria concentration). Often associated with toxic load and/or miscellaneous risk factors, colon cancer is another pathology for which a possible role of gut microbiota composition has been hypothesised. Numerous experimental studies have reported reduction in incidence of tumours and cancers after feeding specific food products with a prebiotic effect. Some of these studies (including one human trial) have also reported that, in such conditions, gut microbiota composition was modified (especially due to increased concentration of bifidobacteria). Dietary intake of particular food products with a prebiotic effect has been shown, especially in adolescents, but also tentatively in postmenopausal women, to increase Ca absorption as well as bone Ca accretion and bone mineral density. Recent data, both from experimental models and from human studies, support the beneficial effects of particular food products with prebiotic properties on energy homaeostasis, satiety regulation and body weight gain. Together, with data in obese animals and patients, these studies support the hypothesis that gut microbiota composition (especially the number of bifidobacteria) may contribute to modulate metabolic processes associated with syndrome X, especially obesity and diabetes type 2. It is plausible, even though not exclusive, that these effects are linked to the microbiota-induced changes and it is feasible to conclude that their mechanisms fit into the prebiotic effect. However, the role of such changes in these health benefits remains to be definitively proven. As a result of the research activity that followed the publication of the prebiotic concept 15 years ago, it has become clear that products that cause a selective modification in the gut microbiota's composition and/or activity(ies) and thus strengthens normobiosis could either induce beneficial physiological effects in the colon and also in extra-intestinal compartments or contribute towards reducing the risk of dysbiosis and associated intestinal and systemic pathologies.
Delirium is a highly prevalent disease in the elderly and
postoperative, cancer, and AIDS patients. However it is often misdiagnosed
and mistreated. This may be partly due to the inconsistencies of the
diagnosis itself. Delirium is best defined currently by an association of
cognitive impairment and arousal disturbance. Three subtypes (hyperactive,
hypoactive, mixed) receive a definition in the literature, but those
definitions may vary from author to author according to the importance
they give either to the motoric presentation of the delirium or to the
arousal disturbance. Our aim is to point out the inconsistencies we found
in the literature, but also to identify different paths that have been
explored to solve them, that is, the suggestion to emphasize the arousal
disturbances in defining the subtypes instead of the motoric
presentations, which seem to be more fluctuating, and because of the
fluctuating course of the disease to extend the observation over a period
of time, which may improve the accuracy of the diagnosis. This is not
without importance from a clinical standpoint. Subtypes of delirium may be
explained by different pathophysiologic mechanisms, which remain partly
unexplained, and may respond to specific treatments. There is a trend to
isolate core symptoms (disorientation, cognitive deficits,
sleep–wake cycle disturbance, disorganized thinking, and language
abnormalities) so as to distinguish them from secondary symptoms that may
be correlated with the different etiologies. Our contribution is also to
challenge, with new data, the accepted belief that psychotic features are
quite rare in the hypoactive type of delirium. We demonstrate that
delusions and perceptual disturbances, although less frequent, are present
in more than half of the patients with hypoactive delirium. The psychotic
features are clearly correlated with a highly prevalent rate of
patients', spouses', and caregivers' distress. The mixed
subtype of delirium seems to have the worst prognosis, the hyperactive
showing the best prognosis. The treatment of the agitated delirious
patient is also more consensual. Haloperidol remains the gold standard in
the treatment of delirium regardless of the clinical presentation, but the
literature provides several alternatives that may prove more specific and
have less adverse effects (atypical antipsychotics, psychostimulants,
To assess the incidence and spectrum of complications associated with central venous catheter (CVC) placement in the critically ill infant.
A prospective study of all babies hospitalized in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) from January 1989 to December 1989. Potential risk factors associated with infection were evaluated by a case-control comparison.
Conducted at a university-affiliated, tertiary care community hospital.
Neonates requiring intensive care and a central venous catheter. Controls consisted of noninfected babies.
Of 263 critically ill neonates, only 13 (4.9%) required a CVC insertion. Seventeen CVCs were placed in these 13 neonates for a total duration of 600 days (median, 32 days/cannula). Fifteen (88%) of these cannulas had one or more complications during its catheter life including dislodgement or leakage (53%), occlusion or thrombosis (47%), infections (29%), or minor bleeding (12%). Five babies (29%) developed 6 episodes of bloodstream infection including 3 sporadic cases due to Staphylococcus epidermidis and a cluster of fungemia due to Malassezia furfur associated with lipid emulsion therapy Infants with a CVC-associated infection were a younger gestational age (24 weeks versus 32 weeks, p=.04) and weighed less at birth (580 g versus 1285 g, p =.02). The overall rate of bloodstream infection was one episode per 100 days of catheter use.
CVCs may be lifesaving to a critically ill neonate, but complications occur frequently Use must be restricted to infants in whom alternate delivery routes of intravenous therapy or support are otherwise unavailable.
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