The existing literature about the definition and diagnostic criteria of constitutional thinness (CT) appears equivocal. The present work systematically reviewed the criteria used in the diagnosis of adult individuals with CT (PROSPERO registration number: CRD42019138236). Five electronic bibliographic databases were searched between December 2018 and November 2019: MEDLINE, Embase, CENTRAL (Cochrane Library), Google Scholar and Clinical Trials. Search terms were combined with Medical Subject Headings terms. The search strategy included any clinical trials that enrolled adults with CT. Studies were systematically excluded if the state of thinness was not due to a well-identified constitutional origin. From the 689 references after duplicate removal, 199 studies were excluded based on title and 164 based on abstract. According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 291 other studies were removed. Finally, thirty-five studies remained at the end of the process. The analysis of these studies showed high heterogeneity in the diagnostic criteria of CT. A real need emerged to adopt a common terminology and to systematically exclude potential non-constitutional origins of thinness such as eating disorders, associated pathology or over-exercising, with validated tools. Weight history, physiological menses and weight gain resistance are also important criteria to consider. The present systematic review revealed that our medical and scientific approaches of CT need to be harmonised in terms of terminology and diagnostic criteria. Although further studies are needed, we finally proposed recommendations and a decision tree to help in the recognition and diagnosis of CT.