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To identify preventable factors that contribute to the cross transmission of severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) to patients in healthcare facilities.
A case–control study was conducted among inpatients on a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak unit.
This study was conducted in a medical-surgical unit of a tertiary-care hospital in Nova Scotia in May 2021.
Patients hospitalized on the unit for at least 12 hours and healthcare workers (HCW) working on the unit within 2 weeks of outbreak declaration were included.
Risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection were analyzed using simple and multiple logistic regression. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) was performed to identify SARS-CoV-2 strain relatedness. Network analysis was used to describe patient accommodation.
SARS-CoV-2 infections were identified in 21 patients (29.6%) and 11 HCWs (6.6%). WGS data revealed 4 distinct clades of related sequences. Several factors likely contributed to the outbreak, including failure to identify SARS-CoV-2, a largely incomplete or unvaccinated population, and patient wandering behaviors. The most significant risk factor for SARS-CoV-2 infection was room sharing with an infectious patient, which was the only factor that remained statistically significant following multivariate analysis (odds ratio [OR], 9.2l; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.04–41.67; P = .004).
This outbreak likely resulted from admission of 2 patients with COVID-19, with subsequent transmissions to 17 patients and 11 staff. WGS and bioinformatics analyses were critical to identifying previously unrecognized nosocomial transmissions of SARS-CoV-2. This study supports strategies to reduce nosocomial transmissions of SARS-CoV-2, such as single-patient rooms, promotion of COVID-19 vaccination, and infection prevention and control measures including management of wandering behaviors.
Sickle cell disease is known to cause various degrees of vasculopathy, including impact on heart function. The aims of this single-centre, retrospective study were to assess cardiac chamber size and function and the relationship with haematological indices such as haemoglobin, aspartate aminotransferase, reticulocytosis and bilirubin, lactate dehydrogenase in sickle cell disease.
Right ventricle and left ventricle diastolic diameters, left ventricle mass estimate, left ventricle shortening fraction, myocardial performance index, and an index of myocardial relaxation (E/E’) were calculated and correlated with haematological parameters.
A total of 110 patients (65% haemoglobin SS, 29% haemoglobin SC) were studied at a mean age of 12.14±5.26 years. Right ventricle dilatation and left ventricle dilatation were present in 61.5 and 42.9%, respectively. Left ventricle mass was abnormal in 21.9%; all patients had normal myocardial performance index, 31.4% had abnormal E/E’, and left ventricle shortening fraction was low in 38.1%. Cardiac dilatation was best correlated with haemoglobin, aspartate aminotransferase, reticulocytosis and bilirubin. Best subset regression analysis yielded significant additional prediction for right ventricle or left ventricle dilatation with haemoglobin, bilirubin, and lactate dehydrogenase. Abnormal E/E’ was solely predictable with haemoglobin level. Hydroxyurea-treated patients had improved diastolic function.
Right ventricle dilatation was more prevalent than left ventricle dilatation. The long-term consequences of right ventricular dilatation, clinical consequences, and association with pulmonary vasculopathy need to be further determined.
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