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Wavelength-dispersive X-ray (WDX) spectroscopy was used to measure silicon atom concentrations in the range 35–100 ppm [corresponding to (3–9) × 1018 cm−3] in doped AlxGa1–xN films using an electron probe microanalyser also equipped with a cathodoluminescence (CL) spectrometer. Doping with Si is the usual way to produce the n-type conducting layers that are critical in GaN- and AlxGa1–xN-based devices such as LEDs and laser diodes. Previously, we have shown excellent agreement for Mg dopant concentrations in p-GaN measured by WDX with values from the more widely used technique of secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). However, a discrepancy between these methods has been reported when quantifying the n-type dopant, silicon. We identify the cause of discrepancy as inherent sample contamination and propose a way to correct this using a calibration relation. This new approach, using a method combining data derived from SIMS measurements on both GaN and AlxGa1–xN samples, provides the means to measure the Si content in these samples with account taken of variations in the ZAF corrections. This method presents a cost-effective and time-saving way to measure the Si doping and can also benefit from simultaneously measuring other signals, such as CL and electron channeling contrast imaging.
Moses Maimonides’ Guide of the Perplexed is the greatest and most influential work in Jewish philosophy. It directly influenced Aquinas, Spinoza, and Leibniz, and the history of Jewish philosophy takes a decisive turn after the appearance of the Guide, in the wake of its Hebrew translation. Aquinas refers to “Rabbi Moyses” when he develops his own theory of analogical predication, and Spinoza has Maimonides and the Guide squarely in focus in the Tractatus Theologico-Politicus, when he presents his own theory of biblical interpretation.
In delineating the causes or reasons for a thing’s being, Aristotle notes, “what something is and what it is for are one …” (Aristotle 1984, 198a25–6). The nature and structure of a thing and its purpose coincide. The nature and structure of a table is what it is for. The nature and structure of the heart is no different than its purpose, to pump blood. And so it is, as I shall argue, with Maimonides’ Guide of the Perplexed (c. 1190). The structure of the work is intimately related to its purpose and ultimate goal. That there is an overall structure needs to be unpacked, and that the structure, overall and even within its discrete parts, serves a particular end also needs to be clarified. If this programmatic essay succeeds, it will provide a framework for reading the essays that follow. Each essay may be read as offering insight to the specific issue at hand, but also may be read as, in its own way, aiming at the ultimate purpose of the work as a whole.
Moses Maimonides' Guide of the Perplexed (c. 1190) is the greatest and most influential text in the history of Jewish philosophy. Controversial in its day, the Guide directly influenced Aquinas, Spinoza, and Leibniz, and the history of Jewish philosophy took a decisive turn after its appearance. While there continues to be keen interest in Maimonides and his philosophy, this is the first scholarly collection in English devoted specifically to the Guide. It includes contributions from an international team of scholars addressing the most important philosophical themes that range over the three parts of this sprawling work - including topics in the philosophy of language, metaphysics, epistemology, philosophy of law, ethics, and political philosophy. There are also essays on the Guide's hermeneutic puzzles, and on its overall structure and philosophical trajectory. The volume will be of interest to philosophers, Judaists, theologians, and medievalists.
This study examines the link between behavior in kindergarten and adult-life welfare receipt. Teacher-rated behavioral assessments were obtained for inattention, hyperactivity, aggression–opposition, anxiety, and prosociality when children (n=2960) were aged 5–6 years and linked to their tax return records from age 18–35 years. We used group-based based trajectory modeling to identify distinct trajectories of welfare receipt and multinomial logistic regression models to examine the association between behaviors and trajectory group membership. The child's sex, IQ, and family background were adjusted for. Four trajectories of welfare receipt were identified: low (n = 2,390, 80.7%), declining (n = 260, 8.8%), rising (n = 150, 5.2%), and chronic (n = 160, 5.4%). Relative to the low trajectory, inattention and aggression–opposition at age 6 years were associated with increased risk of following a declining, rising, and chronic trajectory of welfare receipt, independent of hyperactivity and anxiety. Prosocial behaviors were independently associated with a lower risk of following a chronic trajectory. This study shows that kindergarten children exhibiting high inattention and aggression–opposition and low prosocial behaviors may be at increased risk of long-term welfare receipt in adulthood. The implications for early screening, monitoring, and prevention are discussed.
This work presents the implementation of a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) at 77 GHz, for automotive applications. This implementation is unique in the sense that it is a radar-only solution for most use-cases. The set-up consists of two radar sensors, one to calculate the ego trajectory and the second for SAR measurements. Thus the need for expensive GNSS-based dead reckoning systems, which are in any case not accurate enough to fulfill the requirements for SAR, is eliminated. The results presented here have been obtained from a SAR implementation which is able to deliver processed images in a matter of seconds from the point where the targets were measured. This has been accomplished using radar sensors which will be commercially available in the near future. Hence the results are easily reproducible since the deployed radars are not special research prototypes. The successful widespread use of SAR in the automotive industry will be a large step forward toward developing automated parking functions which will be far superior to today's systems based on ultrasound sensors and radar (short range) beam-forming algorithms. The same short-range radar can be used for SAR, and the ultrasound sensors can thus be completely omitted from the vehicle.
In the present paper, we use a coarse-graining approach to investigate the nonlinear redistribution of free energy in both position and scale space for weakly collisional magnetised plasma turbulence. For this purpose, we use high-resolution numerical simulations of gyrokinetic (GK) turbulence that span the proton–electron range of scales, in a straight magnetic guide field geometry. Accounting for the averaged effect of the particles’ fast gyro-motion on the slow plasma fluctuations, the GK approximation captures the dominant energy redistribution mechanisms in strongly magnetised plasma turbulence. Here, the GK system is coarse grained with respect to a cut-off scale, separating in real space the contributions to the nonlinear interactions from the coarse-grid scales and the sub-grid scales (SGS). We concentrate on the analysis of nonlinear SGS effects. Not only does this allow us to investigate the flux of free energy across the scales, but also to now analyse its spatial density. We find that the net value of scale flux is an order of magnitude smaller than both the positive and negative flux density contributions. The dependence of the results on the filter type is also analysed. Moreover, we investigate the advection of energy in position space. This rather novel approach for GK turbulence can help in the development of SGS models that account for advective unstable structures for space and fusion plasmas, and with the analysis of the turbulent transport saturation.
The schizophrenia polygenic risk score (SCZ-PRS) is an emerging tool in psychiatry.
We aimed to evaluate the utility of SCZ-PRS in a young, transdiagnostic, clinical cohort.
SCZ-PRSs were calculated for young people who presented to early-intervention youth mental health clinics, including 158 patients of European ancestry, 113 of whom had longitudinal outcome data. We examined associations between SCZ-PRS and diagnosis, clinical stage and functioning at initial assessment, and new-onset psychotic disorder, clinical stage transition and functional course over time in contact with services.
Compared with a control group, patients had elevated PRSs for schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and depression, but not for any non-psychiatric phenotype (for example cardiovascular disease). Higher SCZ-PRSs were elevated in participants with psychotic, bipolar, depressive, anxiety and other disorders. At initial assessment, overall SCZ-PRSs were associated with psychotic disorder (odds ratio (OR) per s.d. increase in SCZ-PRS was 1.68, 95% CI 1.08–2.59, P = 0.020), but not assignment as clinical stage 2+ (i.e. discrete, persistent or recurrent disorder) (OR = 0.90, 95% CI 0.64–1.26, P = 0.53) or functioning (R = 0.03, P = 0.76). Longitudinally, overall SCZ-PRSs were not significantly associated with new-onset psychotic disorder (OR = 0.84, 95% CI 0.34–2.03, P = 0.69), clinical stage transition (OR = 1.02, 95% CI 0.70–1.48, P = 0.92) or persistent functional impairment (OR = 0.84, 95% CI 0.52–1.38, P = 0.50).
In this preliminary study, SCZ-PRSs were associated with psychotic disorder at initial assessment in a young, transdiagnostic, clinical cohort accessing early-intervention services. Larger clinical studies are needed to further evaluate the clinical utility of SCZ-PRSs, especially among individuals with high SCZ-PRS burden.
The novel SARS-CoV-2 virus was first reported in Wuhan, China in December 2019 and is notable for being highly contagious and potentially lethal and is mainly spread by droplet transmission. The US healthcare system’s response to the COVID-19 pandemic has been challenged by a shortage of personal protective equipment (PPE), especially N95 respirators. Restricted use, re-use, and sanitation of PPE have been widely adopted to provide protection for frontline healthcare workers caring for often critically ill and highly contagious patients. This objective of this manuscript is to describe our validated process for N95 respirator sanitation.
Process development, validation, and implementation
Level-I urban academic medical center
A multidisciplinary team developed a novel evidence-based process for N95 respirator re-processing and sanitation using ultraviolet (UV) light. Dose measurement, structural integrity, moisture content, particle filtration, fit testing, and environmental testing were performed for both quality control and validation of the process.
The process achieved UV light dosing for sanitation while maintaining the functional and structural integrity of the N95 respirators, with a daily potential throughput capacity of ˜12,000 masks. This process has supported our health system to provide respiratory PPE to all frontline team members.
This novel method of N95 respirator sanitation can safely enable re-use of the N95 respirator essential for healthcare workers caring for patients with COVID-19. Our high-throughput process can extend local supplies of this critical PPE until the national supply is replenished.