To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Studies of pre-bomb mollusks live-collected around the Australian coastline have concluded that near-shore marine radiocarbon reservoir effects are small and relatively uniform. These studies are based on limited samples of sometimes dubious quality representing only selective parts of Australia’s lengthy coastline. We systematically examine spatial variability in the marine radiocarbon reservoir effect (ΔR) through analysis of 292 live-collected mollusk samples across the Australian mainland coasts and near-shore islands subject to strict selection criteria. This study presents 233 new ΔR values combined with an evaluation of 59 previously published values. Results demonstrate significant spatial variability in marine radiocarbon reservoir effects across the study region. ΔR values range from 68 ± 24 14C years off the Pilbara region of Western Australia to –337 ± 46 14C years in the southern Gulf of Carpentaria in Queensland. Most sets of local values exhibit internal consistency, reflecting the dominant influence of regional oceanography, including depletion in ΔR values southwards along the eastern Australian coastline coincident with the East Australian Current. Anomalous values are attributed to inaccurate documentation, species-specific relationships with the carbon cycle and/or short-term fluctuations in marine radiocarbon activities. To account for the heterogeneous distribution of marine 14C, we recommend using a location specific ΔR value calculated using the Australian ΔR Calculator, available at: https://delta-r-calc.jcu.io/.
We provide an overview of diagnostic stewardship with key concepts that include the diagnostic pathway and the multiple points where interventions can be implemented, strategies for interventions, the importance of multidisciplinary collaboration, and key microbiologic diagnostic tests that should be considered for diagnostic stewardship. The document focuses on microbiologic laboratory testing for adult and pediatric patients and is intended for a target audience of healthcare workers involved in diagnostic stewardship interventions and all workers affected by any step of the diagnostic pathway (ie, ordering, collecting, processing, reporting, and interpreting results of a diagnostic test). This document was developed by the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America Diagnostic Stewardship Taskforce.
Childhood trauma, particularly emotional abuse, is prevalent in bipolar disorder, and affective instability mechanistically explains the relationship between childhood trauma and poor bipolar disorder outcomes. Yet, trauma-focused interventions in bipolar disorder are lacking. This editorial calls for future early interventions to target the effects of childhood trauma and affective instability in this population.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Myocarditis is an inflammatory cardiomyopathy commonly caused by viral infections. The residual burden of this disease after guideline-based therapies is substantial, as there are no pathway-specific therapies. Our long-term goal is to find and translate treatments that reduce acute myocarditis severity and prevent progression of disease. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Of available therapies, extracellular vesicles (EVs) are ideally suited to the task of simultaneous, specific reprogramming of multiple pathogenesis mechanisms necessary in diseases like myocarditis, without similar immunosuppressive risks as their pharmacologic counterparts. We obtained plasma from healthy men and women and isolated nanoparticles, which were analyzed for physiochemical markers of human EVs. After confirming presence of EVs, we injected these plasma-derived extracellular vesicles (PEV) into male BALB/c mice vs. PBS control intraperitoneally on days -1, 0, 1 of viral infection (day 0) in a highly translational, mouse model of myocarditis. Hearts were examined at day 10 at the peak of acute myocarditis, using standard histological and cell composition analyses. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Mice treated with PEV had significantly less myocardial inflammation both histologically and by gene expression of immune markers in the heart. The immunoregulation by PEV treatment decreased many key components of innate immune response networks that are known to be upregulated during acute myocarditis: TLR4+ mast cells and macrophages and complement. These pathways drive the profibrotic gene and protein changes that lead to remodeling, fibrosis, and disease progression observed in patients. We anticipate that when we analyze later timepoints in this model (day 35 post infection) which are normally associated with development of chronic myocarditis, dilated cardiomyopathy, we will see reduction of this fibrosis and of damage-associated changes. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These data suggest that EVs from plasma may be a novel treatment for viral myocarditis, but translation of EVs is hindered by their heterogeneity. We demonstrate characterization both physiochemically and functionally in a well-defined model. Such practices are necessary as these contemporary products challenge current regulation standards.
The presence of the prostate in female mammals has long been known. However, pieces of information related to its development are still lacking. The aim of this study was to explore the budding dynamic during the initial prostate development in female gerbils. Pregnant females were timed, the fetuses were euthanized, and the urogenital sinus was dissected out between the embryonic days 20 and 24 (E20–E24 groups). Newborn pups (1-day-old; P1 group) underwent the same procedures. The female prostate development was based on epithelial buds which arose far from the paraurethral mesenchyme (PAM). The epithelial buds reached the PAM at prenatal day 24, crossing a small gap in the smooth muscle layer between the periurethral mesenchyme (PEM) and the PAM. Steroid nuclear receptors such as the androgen receptor and estrogen receptor alpha were localized in the PEM through the urethral wall, although some epithelial labeling was also present in the urogenital sinus epithelium (UGE). P63-positive cells were found only in the UGE, becoming restricted to the basal compartment after the 23rd prenatal day. The results showed that the gerbil female prostate exhibits a distinct budding pattern as compared to the male prostate development.
Infective endocarditis is a major threat after prosthetic pulmonary valve replacement. Early diagnosis may improve outcomes.
A structured patient education programme for prevention and early diagnosis of infective endocarditis was developed at our institution since 2016. Time delay between onset of symptoms of prosthetic pulmonary valve endocarditis and its diagnosis (defined as initiation of appropriate high-dose intravenous antibiotic treatment) was compared for patients presenting before (cohort 1) and after (cohort 2) initiation of the patient education programme.
Between 2008–2019, 26 patients (median age 24.9, range: 16.8–62.0 years, 73% male) were diagnosed with prosthetic pulmonary valve endocarditis, 13 patients (cohort 1) before (1.7 cases/year) and 13 patients (cohort 2) after June 2016 (3.7 cases/year). There were no differences in baseline characteristics or clinical presentation between the study cohorts. Overall, the median delay between onset of symptoms and diagnosis of infective endocarditis was 6 days (range: 0–133 days) with a significantly longer delay among patients in cohort 1, compared to cohort 2 (25 days, range: 5–133 days versus 3 days, range: 0–13 days, p < 0.0001). A delay of >7 days was documented in 11/13 patients (85%) in cohort 1 as compared to 1/13 (8%) in cohort 2 (p < 0.001). Need for urgent valve replacement or permanent deterioration of prosthetic valve function was higher in cohort 1, compared to cohort 2 (11/13, 85% versus 5/13, 39%; p = 0.041).
Prosthetic pulmonary valve endocarditis is increasingly recognised. A structured patient education programme may improve early diagnosis and clinical outcomes.
Hypleurochilus fissicornis is a resident species of the intertidal and subtidal zones of Mar del Plata, Argentina. The specific reproductive biology was studied by means of both microscopic and macroscopic analyses. A total of 212 males and 223 females were analysed. Specimens were dissected and their gonads and livers were removed. The gonadosomatic and hepatosomatic indexes and the condition factor were calculated on a monthly basis. Hypleurochilus fissicornis breeds in rocky intertidal areas, and exhibits low fecundity with benthic eggs and parental care. Size at first maturity (L50) was estimated at 53.66 and 55.83 mm total length for females and males, respectively. The spawning season takes place between December and April.
XtendFlex® technology from Bayer allows growers to apply glyphosate, glufosinate, and dicamba POST to cotton. Since the evolution and spread of glyphosate-resistant weed species, early POST applications with several modes of action have become common. However, crop injury potential from these applications warrants further examination. Field studies were conducted from 2015 to 2017 at two locations in Mississippi to evaluate XtendFlex® cotton injury from herbicide application. Herbicide applications were made to XtendFlex® cotton at the three- to six-leaf stage with herbicide combinations composed of two-, three-, and four-way combinations of glyphosate, glufosinate, S-metolachlor, and three formulations of dicamba. Data collection included visual estimations of injury, stand counts, cotton height, total mainstem nodes, and nodes above whiteflower at first bloom. Data collection at the end of the season included cotton height, total mainstem nodes, and nodes above cracked boll. Visual estimations of injury from herbicide applications were highest at 3 d following applications containing glufosinate + S-metolachlor (36% to 41% injury) and glufosinate + S-metolachlor in combination with dicamba + glyphosate (39% to 41% injury), regardless of the dicamba formulation. Crop injury decreased at each rating interval and dissipated by 28 d following applications (P = 0.3748). Height reductions were present at first bloom and at the end of the season (P < 0.0001), although cotton yield was unaffected (P = 0.2089), even when injury at 3 d after application was greater than 30%. Results indicate that growers may apply a variety of herbicide tank mixtures to XtendFlex® cotton and expect no yield penalty. Furthermore, if growers are concerned with cotton injury after herbicide applications, the use of glufosinate in combination with S-metolachlor should be approached with caution in XtendFlex® cotton.
Multi-Robot System (MRS) is composed of a group of robots that work cooperatively. However, Multi-Agent System (MAS) is computational systems consisting of a group of agents that interact with each other to solve a problem. The central difference between MRS and MAS is that in the first case, the agent is a robot, and in the second, it is a software. Analyzing the scientific literature, it is possible to notice that few studies address the integration between MAS and MRS. In order to achieve the interdisciplinary integration, the theoretical background of these areas must be considered in this paper, so that the integration can be applied using a case study of decentralized MRS. The objective of this MRS is to track and surround a stationary target. Also, it has been implemented and validated in the robot simulator called Virtual Robot Experimentation Platform (V-REP). In the validation of the proposed MRS, a scenario with three robots and a stationary target were defined. In the tracking task, the robot can detect the target whose position is not known a priori. When the detection occurs, the V-REP informs the target position to the robot because the environment is discretized into a grid of rectangular cells. After that, all the robots are directed to the target, and the surround task is realized. In this task, a mathematical model with direct communication between the robots was used to keep the robots equidistant therefrom and from each other.
Near 20% of the Portuguese population is aged 65 years or above, a value similar to most developed countries. This older adult population also suffers from obesity and obesity-related pathologies. The environment encompasses a set of obesity determinants and knowing the associations between the environment and obesity may help health professionals and caregivers to provide for the older adults.
In this study, we aimed to relate anthropometric measures with socio-demographic data in older adults.
This is a cross-sectional study using data from the Pronutrisenior project, collected in Vila Nova de Gaia, Portugal. The sample consists of 456 older adults, aged 65 to 92 years without cognitive impairment. The sample consisted of older adults living at their homes. Socio-demographic, clinical, geographical, and anthropometric data was collected. The statistical analysis used IBM-SPSS-22.0 and consisted on descriptive statistics, Pearson correlations and UniANOVA. Significantly results (p < 0.05) are reported.
These older adults were mostly females (54.2%) with a mean age of 73.8 years (sd = 6.3), mean body mass index (BMI) of 29.1kg/m2 (sd = 4.8), mean waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) of 0.623 (sd = 0.073) and mean percentage of body fat mass (%BFM) of 40.7% (sd = 8.9%) for females and 30.2% (sd = 8.5%) for males. BMI, WHtR and %BFM were positively correlated. In this sample of older adults, higher values of these measures were associated to being female, younger, less educated; to having articular pains and respiratory problems, and not having insomnia, hypertension, chewing problems nor hearing problems; to drink more liquids but not consuming dairy products daily; to not take nutritional supplements but to take more medicines; to be without somebody to talk to and to be more dependent; and to live in a house without stairs to climb and to live near other older adults, and in a more urbanized area with streets with steeper slopes.
In this sample of older adults, obesity is related with health characteristics and those are related with socio-demographic and geographical characteristics of the area of residence. Besides the identification of risk factors for the older adult population, this information may help designing health care policies that takes in consideration the physical and geographical characteristics of the neighbourhood of the area of residence of the older adults.
Malnutrition is a serious health problem among older adults. The Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) is the most used tool to assess malnutrition among older adults. It was proposed that the Screening section could be used as a short form of the MNA (MNA-SF), but the study of the two forms show a wide range of agreement (71.8 to 93.3% and Cohen's kappa from 0.52 to 0.78). Nevertheless, most of the studies recommend the use of the MNA-SF, but in some this conclusion is not completely congruent with the results. The aims of this work were to study the agreement between the nutritional status classification using the MNA-SF and the MNA-FF among Portuguese older adults living in the community, to compare the scores in each question of the MNA-FF between participants correctly or incorrectly classified using the MNA-SF, and to develop a more sensible version of the MNA-SF. The current study is part of the PRONUTRISENIOR project. Data from 456 older adults (54.2% females) aged 65 to 92 years (mean = 73; SD = 6) living in the community (Vila Nova de Gaia, Portugal) were analyzed. The agreement between the two classifications is 82.7%, but Cohen's k shows a weak agreement (weighted k = 0.497; p < 0,001). MNA-SF showed a very low sensitivity (42.6%) detecting participants malnourished or at risk of malnutrition. Participants classified as normal using the MNA-SF despite at risk using the MNA-SF presented lower scores in two items from the Assessment section: number of full meals eaten daily and amount of fluid consumed per day. These two items were included in MNA-SF to obtain an extended short-version (MNA-SF8), which presented a sensitivity of 91.8% (and a specificity of 79.9%). The areas under the ROC curves were 0.858 and 0.929, respectively for MNA-SF and MNA-SF8. The addition of two items to the MNA-SF provides a more sensible tool to detect risk of malnutrition among elderly. These findings suggest that, among the studied population, general eating-related questions regarding (full meals and fluid intake) are relevant to assess malnutrition. Similar studies should be carried out among other populations in order to verify the possibility of their generalization. [The PRONUTRISENIOR project was financed by Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway through the EEA Grants (PT06 – Public Health Initiatives, reference 81NU5).]
Malnutrition is associated to a progressive decline in health, reduced physical and cognitive functional status and mortality. However, the malnutrition prevalence differs across countries. Previous studies reported 19% of malnourished elderly in Turkey and 1.3% in Portugal.
We aimed to compare the nutritional status between between Portuguese and Turkish older adults using the Mini-Nutritional Assessment.
This is a cross-sectional study using data from the Pronutrisenior project, collected in Vila Nova de Gaia, Portugal (n = 430), and a study in Ankara, Turkey (n = 162). The sample consisted of older adults living at their homes. Socio-demographic data, clinical data from the medical records, the full form of Mini-Nutrititional Assessment, MNA-FF and anthropometry (weight, height, BMI, mid-arm circumference and calf circumference) were collected.
Turkish older adults lived more frequently with children, are more likely to be widow/widower, and have a higher probability of being housewife/househusband. A larger proportion of the Portuguese have tooth loss, diabetes, hypertension, oncologic diseases, kidney diseases, osteoarticular problems, or eye problems and a larger proportion of the Turkish have anemia. The BMI average is smaller in the Turkish sample, while the calf circumference average is larger. Turkish have a larger proportion of malnourished or at risk of malnutrition (4.9% and 31.5% vs. 1.2% and 24.0%, respectively). The average MNA-FF score is higher among the Portuguese, males and on people using denture, and without: toothloss, hypertension, CVD, anemia and oncological diseases. Moreover, higher MNA-FF scores were associated with younger ages, higher BMI and higher calf circumference.The effect size was larger for CVD and sex.
The prevalence of malnutrition in European and American populations ranges from 1% to 15% in ambulatory living elders, more common among females as in this work. Other studies showed that higher BMI is related with lower malnutrition prevalence and higher prevalence of obesity-related chronic diseases. Tooth loss was more frequent in the Portuguese, which may be due to a higher intake of sweets or packaged food. Portuguese elders had lower calf circumferences but higher BMI, which may be related to lower muscle mass and/or higher fat mass. The differences between the Portuguese and the Turkish may be related to the different per capita gross national product, positively correlated with BMI and the consumption of processed foods. Anemia in Turkish elders may be related with BMI and their lower consumption of meat and the higher tea intake that may reduce iron absorption, as reported by other studies.
The savannah enclaves (i.e. patches) in the southern Brazilian Amazonia are among the most threatened and poorly surveyed sites in Amazonia. As part of an extensive mammal survey, we set camera traps in three of these savannah enclaves. We obtained 23 independent records of pampas deer Ozotoceros bezoarticus, a medium sized Neotropical cervid that is strongly associated with open habitats and categorized as Vulnerable on the Brazilian Red List of threatened species. These savannah enclaves with confirmed populations of pampas deer lie outside the species’ previously presumed historical range and are at least 350 km from any known extant population. Together, these savannah enclaves add c. 4,000 km2 to the pampas deer's currently known range. The small pampas deer populations in these enclaves are probably isolated by a matrix of Amazon forest, raising questions about spatial genetic structure and meta-population dynamics, and making them vulnerable to local extinction. We highlight the need for further studies, particularly genetic, to assess the conservation status of these populations, the results of which could potentially inform management decisions in other areas of the heavily fragmented range of this species.
In the current study, phage-exposed mimotopes as targets against tegumentary leishmaniasis (TL) were selected by means of bio-panning cycles employing sera of TL patients and healthy subjects, besides the immune stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) collected from untreated and treated TL patients and healthy subjects. The clones were evaluated regarding their specific interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) production in the in vitro cultures, and selectivity and specificity values were calculated, and those presenting the best results were selected for the in vivo experiments. Two clones, namely A4 and A8, were identified and used in immunization protocols from BALB/c mice to protect against Leishmania amazonensis infection. Results showed a polarized Th1 response generated after vaccination, being based on significantly higher levels of IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-12, tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF); which were associated with lower production of specific IL-4, IL-10 and immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) antibodies. Vaccinated mice presented significant reductions in the parasite load in the infected tissue and distinct organs, when compared with controls. In conclusion, we presented a strategy to identify new mimotopes able to induce Th1 response in PBMCs from TL patients and healthy subjects, and that were successfully used to protect against L. amazonensis infection.
The cryopreservation of epididymal sperm is an important technique that allows genetic material to be preserved, even post mortem. However, cryopreservation leads to increased oxidative stress and impaired sperm viability. Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplementation may improve certain sperm characteristics, but it also makes sperm more susceptible to oxidative stress, therefore adding antioxidants that counteract oxidative stress has become an option. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of the interaction between docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and antioxidants on the quality after the cryopreservation of epididymal bull sperm. Twenty epididymides were collected after slaughter, and epididymal sperm was cryopreserved with bovine extender supplemented with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). We verified an improvement in motility in the group that was treated only with DHA 5 µM and a concentration-dependent effect on susceptibility to lipid peroxidation that was associated with DHA concentration (1 µM, 5 µM or 10 µM). Moreover, treatment with DHA (5 µM) and SOD (20 IU/ml) resulted in higher sperm motility. Thus, the association between DHA (5 µM) and SOD (20 IU/ml) appears to be an option for increased epididymal sperm features in bulls.
To this date ψ Per is the only classical Be star that was angularly resolved in radio (by the VLA at λ = 2 cm). Gaussian fit to the azimuthally averaged visibility data indicates a disk size (FWHM) of ~500 stellar radii (Dougherty & Taylor 1992). Recently, we obtained new multi-band cm flux density measurements of ψ Per from the enhanced VLA. We modeled the observed spectral energy distribution (SED) covering the interval from ultraviolet to radio using the Monte Carlo radiative transfer code HDUST (Carciofi & Bjorkman 2006). An SED turndown, that occurs between far-IR and radio wavelengths, is explained by a truncated viscous decretion disk (VDD), although the shallow slope of the radio SED suggests that the disk is not simply cut off, as is assumed in our model. The best-fit size of a truncated disk derived from the modeling of the radio SED is 100+5−15 stellar radii, which is in striking contrast with the result of Dougherty & Taylor (1992). The reasons for this discrepancy are under investigation.
Your God does not speak to me, he wants to remain silent
Why do you kill me if i don't understand
Your book doesn't speak, it doesn't want to speak
(‘Encounter in Cajamarca’, from Taki Ongoi by Victor Heredia, an Argentinian singer-songwriter)
The Bible arrived in what is now known as Latin America in the hands of Spanish and Portuguese conquistadores who reached the continent from 1492 onwards. This arrival and its effect on religion was of course backed and controlled by the Roman Catholic Church. The official version of the Bible used by the Church at the time of the conquest and considered to be the only authentic one by the Council of Trent was the ‘same ancient Vulgate edition, approved by the Church through its use over many centuries’. Any other versions or translations into the vernacular were prohibited (with some exceptions as we shall see below) and they were included in the Index of Prohibited Books from 1559 onwards. Furthermore, the reading and interpretation of the Vulgate was reserved for specialists who were properly guided by the teaching of the Church. The Bible was not, therefore, a present reality in the everyday life of the colonial Church, except as it was first mediated through a series of filters.
The first filter would be that produced by scholastic theology, which accompanied and served as the theological foundation for the conquest and which, in many cases, ended up being a justification for the subjugation and extermination of the indigenous population, favoured by certain sectors of the conquistador enterprise. The second filter would be that exercised by the ecclesiastical institution that presented itself as the only valid interpreter of the Scriptures. Thirdly, that same institution, when faced with a threat to its authority, would repress even the Bible itself as a source of inspiration beyond its control. Finally, we will examine the way in which the biblical message found paths to freedom, inspiring prophets such as Bartolomé de las Casas and his defence of the indigenous cause.