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Accurate knowledge of the ice thickness distribution and glacier bed topography is essential for predicting dynamic glacier changes and the future developments of downstream hydrology, which are impacting the energy sector, tourism industry and natural hazard management. Using AIR-ETH, a new helicopter-borne ground-penetrating radar (GPR) platform, we measured the ice thickness of all large and most medium-sized glaciers in the Swiss Alps during the years 2016–20. Most of these had either never or only partially been surveyed before. With this new dataset, 251 glaciers – making up 81% of the glacierized area – are now covered by GPR surveys. For obtaining a comprehensive estimate of the overall glacier ice volume, ice thickness distribution and glacier bed topography, we combined this large amount of data with two independent modeling algorithms. This resulted in new maps of the glacier bed topography with unprecedented accuracy. The total glacier volume in the Swiss Alps was determined to be 58.7 ± 2.5 km3 in the year 2016. By projecting these results based on mass-balance data, we estimated a total ice volume of 52.9 ± 2.7 km3 for the year 2020. Data and modeling results are accessible in the form of the SwissGlacierThickness-R2020 data package.
This article examines young people’s experiences of open access youth work in settings in the UK, Finland, Estonia, Italy and France. It analyses 844 individual narratives from young people, which communicate the impact of youthwork on their lives. These accounts are then analysed in the light of the European youth work policy goals. It concludes that it is encouraging that what young people identify as the positive impact of youth work are broadly consistent with many of these goals. There are however some disparities which require attention. These include the importance young people place on the social context of youth work, such as friendship, which is largely absent in EU youth work policy; as well as the importance placed on experiential learning. The paper also highlights a tension between ‘top down’ policy formulation and the ‘youth centric’ practices of youth work. It concludes with a reminder to policy makers that for youth work to remain successful the spaces and places for young people must remain meaningful to them ‘on their terms’.
In this article we present the fragments of a crucible and a possible tuyère that provide evidence of early copper metallurgy in Scandinavia at least 1500 years earlier than previously thought. The technical ceramics were found in a cultural layer containing Early Neolithic Funnel Beaker pottery dating to around 3800–3500 bc beneath a long barrow dating to 3300–3100 bc. The presence of a copper alloy in the crucible is confirmed by three independent X-ray fluorescence analyses using both a hand-held and a stationary instrument, SEM-EDS analysis of a cross-section, as well as a Bruker Tornado μ-X-Ray-fluorescence scanner (μ-XRF). The transmission of metallurgy to southern Scandinavia coincided with the introduction of long barrows, causewayed enclosures, two-aisled houses, and certain types of artefacts. Thus, metallurgy seems to be part of the new networks that enabled the establishment of a fully Neolithic society.
RNase MRP is a ribonucleoprotein enzyme involved in processing
precursor rRNA in eukaryotes. To facilitate our
structure–function analysis of RNase MRP from
Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we have determined the likely
secondary structure of the RNA component by a phylogenetic approach
in which we sequenced all or part of the RNase MRP RNAs from
17 additional species of the Saccharomycetaceae family.
The structure deduced from these sequences contains the helices
previously suggested to be common to the RNA subunit of RNase
MRP and the related RNA subunit of RNase P, an enzyme cleaving
tRNA precursors. However, outside this common region, the structure
of RNase MRP RNA determined here differs from a previously proposed
universal structure for RNase MRPs. Chemical and enzymatic
structure probing analyses were consistent with our revised
secondary structure. Comparison of all known RNase MRP RNA
sequences revealed three regions with highly conserved nucleotides.
Two of these regions are part of a helix implicated in RNA
catalysis in RNase P, suggesting that RNase MRP may cleave rRNA
using a similar catalytic mechanism.
The Northeast Interstate Dairy Compact (Compact), the first regional dairy compact in the U.S., has been the focus of a great deal of attention and speculation during the past several years. The Compact was authorized under the Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform act of 1996 and was enacted into law by each of the six New England states, Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island and Vermont (U.S. Government). The Compact explicitly recognizes dairy farming as an important component of the New England landscape that provides both cultural and economic benefits to the region. The Compact's stated purposes are to assure the continued viability of dairy farming in the Northeast, as well as its associated support industries, and to provide consumers with an adequate local supply of pure and wholesome milk. The Compact provides a measure of farm fluid milk price control in the New England states in order to help satisfy these goals.
Northeast Dairy Compact impacts were estimated for Boston and Hartford retail prices using an econometric model. Asymmetric speeds of adjustment to farm price increases and decreases were found; however, tests indicated that retail prices do return to the same level following equal farm price increases and decreases. Model forecasts suggested no structural changes occurred during the out-of-sample period, July 1996 through June 1998. Simulations with and without the Compact predicted lower retail fluid milk price impacts than actual July 1997 changes. These predicted impacts separate the effects of farm price changes on retail prices from possibly confounding effects.
The relevance of graduate training in the Department of Resource Economics at the University of Massachusetts is investigated through a survey of graduates. The survey questionnaire and measures of relevancy are discussed. Results are presented for three cohorts: graduates currently in Ph.D. programs, M.S. graduates currently employed, and Ph.D. graduates currently employed. Results for all cohorts indicate that their graduate training is relevant to their jobs; however, all cohorts also favored increased application and reduced mathematics and theory. In addition, graduates suggested the need to bolster graduate training in economics with applied courses in business to improve competitiveness in private job markets.
Firm-varying production technologies were estimated using random coefficients regression methods for a sample of Massachusetts dairy farms. Results were compared to OLS Cobb-Douglas production function estimates. The random coefficients regression model was found to virtually eliminate conventionally measured firm technical inefficiencies by estimating individual firm technologies and ascribing remaining inefficiencies to specific inputs. Input-specific measures of firm inefficiencies showed hired labor, land, and machinery inputs to be used in excess of efficient levels. Livestock supplies were underutilized by all farms. Efficiencies of feed, crop materials, fuels, and utilities varied, although estimated means were closer to optimal levels.
The off-farm labor participation and supply decisions of Massachusetts farm families were estimated in a model which allows for joint decisions. The hypothesis of joint off-farm participation decisions by operators and spouses was rejected. However, there was some evidence that the hours supplied by the farm operator was dependent upon the decision by the spouse to work off-farm. Farm operators were found to respond to both family and farm characteristics in making participation and supply decisions. Spouses respond to the characteristics of the farm and family in participation decisions while family characteristics determined hours worked by the spouse.
Economic base studies are an accepted economic tool for regional economic analysis. The economic base concept was first set forth as early as 1928 in a regional study of New York City. The economic base concept gained maturity through the work of Homer Hoyt in the 1930's. The first complete statement of the theory of economic base is contained in a text written by Weiner and Hoyt.
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