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Increased population movements and increased mobility made it possible for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, which is mainly spread by respiratory droplets, to spread faster and more easily. This study tracked and analysed the development of the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in the top 100 cities that were destinations for people who left Wuhan before the city entered lockdown. Data were collected from the top 100 destination cities for people who travelled from Wuhan before the lockdown, the proportion of people travelling into each city, the intensity of intracity travel and the daily reports of COVID-19. The proportion of the population that travelled from Wuhan to each city from 10 January 2020 to 24 January 2020, was positively correlated with and had a significant linear relationship with the cumulative number of confirmed cases of COVID-19 in each city after 24 January (all P < 0.01). After the State Council launched a multidepartment joint prevention and control effort on 22 January 2020 and compared with data collected on 18 February, the average intracity travel intensity of the aforementioned 100 cities decreased by 60−70% (all P < 0.001). The average intensity of intracity travel on the nth day in these cities during the development of the outbreak was positively related to the growth rate of the number of confirmed COVID-19 cases on the n + 5th day in these cities and had a significant linear relationship (P < 0.01). Higher intensities of population movement were associated with a higher incidence of COVID-19 during the pandemic. Restrictions on population movement can effectively curb the development of an outbreak.
The pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) remains unclear despite extensive neuroimaging work on the disorder. Exposure to medication and comorbid mental disorders can confound the results of OCD studies. The goal of this study was to explore differences in brain functional connectivity (FC) within the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) loop of drug-naïve and drug-free OCD patients and healthy controls (HCs).
A total of 29 drug-naïve OCD patients, 22 drug-free OCD patients, and 25 HCs matched on age, gender and education level underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning at resting state. Seed-based connectivity analyses were conducted among the three groups. The Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale and clinical inventories were used to assess the clinical symptoms.
Compared with HCs, the drug-naïve OCD patients had reduced FC within the limbic CSTC loop. In the drug-naïve OCD participants, we also found hyperconnectivity between the supplementary motor area and ventral and dorsal putamen (p < 0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons).
Exposure to antidepressants such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors may affect the function of some brain regions. Future longitudinal studies could help to reveal the pharmacotherapeutic mechanisms in these loops.
The Beijing Twin Study (BeTwiSt), which was established in 2006, is an ongoing study aiming to investigate the genetic and environmental etiology of adolescent psychopathology. Resting-state brain imaging datasets have been examined for same-sex twins, and other psychological traits and emotional and behavioral variables have been examined for all twins. Based on the registry, the main findings regarding the etiological mechanism underlying adolescent development, magnetic resonance imaging results, and genetic and environmental influences on other psychological traits have been published. This article summarizes the key findings in these three areas and discusses future plans for the BeTwiSt.
The number of elderly individuals living in China is increasing rapidly. The aim of this study was to examine the potential risk factors of geriatric depression in rural areas.
A repeated cross-sectional study was conducted between January 2015 and October 2016 in rural China. Nine hundred forty-five elderly individuals were included in both investigations. A generalized estimating equation (GEE) was used to examine the relationships between geriatric depression and socio-demographics, the number of chronic diseases, ADL (Activity of Daily Living) disability, cognitive impairment, and anxiety.
Among the participants, the majority was female (61.4%) and illiterate (81.5%) and had a general economic status (63.0%) and more than two kinds of chronic diseases (62.9%). The bivariate analysis indicated that geriatric depression was associated with social support, education level, economic status, ADL disability, anxiety disorders, and cognitive impairment at both survey time points. The GEE results showed that poor economic status (OR = 8.294, p < 0.001), the presence of more than two chronic diseases (OR = 1.681, p = 0.048), ADL disability (OR = 2.184, p < 0.001), cognitive impairment (OR = 1.921, p < 0.001), and anxiety (OR = 5.434, p < 0.001) were risk factors for geriatric depression in rural China; better social support (OR = 0.924, 95% CI = 0.899–0.949, p < 0.001) was found to be a protective factor.
Geriatric depression in rural China was associated with several socio-demographic, physical, and mental factors. Targeted interventions are essential to improve the psychological health of aged individuals in rural China.
The Wa'ergang section in South China has been proposed as a potential Global Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) for the base of Stage 10, the uppermost stage of the Cambrian System. In this study, high-resolution C-isotopic compositions are reported and we identified three large negative δ13C excursions, namely N1, N2 and N3, at Wa'ergang. The N1 is located just above the First Appearance Datum (FAD) of Lotagnostus americanus, corresponding to the possible base of the Proconodontus posterocostatus conodont Zone. The N2 was identified within the Micragnostus chuishuensis trilobite Zone and the Proconodontus muelleri conodont Zone. The N3 is located in the lowermost part of the Leiagnostus cf. bexelli – Archaeuloma taoyuanense trilobite Zone or Eoconodontus conodont Zone. The N1 and N2 can be correlated with the negative δ13C excursions preceding the Top of Cambrian Carbon Isotope Excursion (TOCE) observed globally. The N3 can be correlated with the TOCE or the HEllnmaria–Red Tops Boundary (HERB) Event. The inter-basinal correlation of N1 and L. americanus strongly supports that the base of Stage 10 may be best defined by the FAD of L. americanus. We also used a box model to quantitatively explore the genesis of the negative δ13C excursions from South China. Our numerical simulations suggest that weathering of the organic-rich sediments on the platform, probably driven by intermittent sea level fall and/or the oxygenation of the Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) reservoir in seawater, may have contributed to the generation of the negative δ13C excursions observed in the Stage 10 at Wa'ergang in South China.
Titanium dioxide (TiO2), a widely used inorganic semiconductor owing to its superb photoelectric properties, has frequently been fabricated into composites to reduce its relatively large band gap and overcome its limited visible light absorption. In this article, a “layer-by-layer” method has been developed to prepare the composite structure of nitrogen (N)-doped graphene quantum dots (GQDs)-sensitized TiO2 nanofibers. The as-prepared structure shows considerable luminescence and exhibits excellent photoelectric properties. Various factors including the crystalline phase of TiO2, amount of N in GQDs, and irradiation wavelength were investigated to find the optimal conditions for enhanced photoelectric activity. It is demonstrated that the combination of highest N amount GQDs with TiO2 nanofibers of mixed phases (750 °C-sintered TiO2 nanofibers) possess the best photoelectric properties. The enhancement of properties using TiO2 nanofibers with mixed phases mainly contributes to the transfer of electrons between conduction bands of different phases in TiO2 and the distinctive photoluminescence (PL) property of N-GQDs. Furthermore, this enhancement can be achieved in most areas of the visible light range. The general mechanism of the electron generation and transfer of the structure is based on the normal PL and upconversion PL property of N-GQDs which serve as the sensitizer. We consider it a feasible method to improve the photoelectric conversion efficiency in photovoltaic devices.
The mesoporous and nanorods SnO2 are synthesized by controlling the state of SnCl2·2H2O precursor with SBA-15 as hard template, and the possible formation mechanisms at different assembling modes inside the ordered mesoporous silica templates are proposed. In addition, SnO2 nanoparticles are synthesized by hydrolysis depositing method. The electrochemical tests of as-prepared samples indicate that the reticular stacking structure of the nanorods would limit the Li+ ions to intercalate, but the effect of volume expansion in this case upon cycling is insignificant. The mesostructure SnO2 tends to be stable after partial structural collapse at first few cycles. And the Li+ ions can readily intercalate and de-intercalate into/from its ordered channels structure, which provides a high capacity and an improved cycle property. Although SnO2 nanoparticles deliver high capacity at an early stage, the agglomeration may induce the capacity to drop rapidly after a certain number of cycles.
Lymphatic stomata are small openings of lymphatic capillaries on the surface of the mesothelium that lines the serous cavity and have the function of active absorption. They play an important role in physiological and pathological conditions. The cavity of the tunica vaginalis is a typical serous cavity of the testis, but the lymphatic stomata of the tunica vaginalis of humans have never been reported. Here, we studied their ultrastructure by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The submesothelial connective tissue with foramina was investigated after the mesothelial cells were digested using NaOH solution. We found the lymphatic stomata in cuboidal mesothelial cell regions of the parietal layer of the tunica vaginalis of humans with a diameter of about 1–2 μm. Sometimes, closed lymphatic stomata could be observed. Our study is the first to report the existence of lymphatic stomata of the tunica vaginalis of humans. We found that the tunica vaginalis cavity is connected with the lymphatic system through the stomata, which might provide a morphological basis for the drainage of hydrocele and tumor metastasis of the tunica vaginalis of humans.
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