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Cyperus rotundus L. is a globally distributed noxious weed that poses a significant challenge for control due to its fast and efficient propagation through the tuber, which is the primary reproductive organ. Gibberellic acid (GA3) has proved to be crucial for tuberization in tuberous plants. Therefore, understanding the relationship between GA3 and tuber development and propagation of C.roundus will provide valuable information for controlling this weed. This study shows that the content of GA3 decreases with tuber development, which corresponds to lower expression of bioactive GA3 synthesis genes (CrGA20ox, two CrGA3oxs) and two up-regulated GA3 catabolism genes (CrGA2oxs), indicating that GA3 is involved in tuber development. Simultaneously, the expressions of CrDELLAs and CrGID1 decline with tuber growth and GA3 decreasing, and Yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) assays confirm that the GA3 signaling is DELLA-dependent. Furthermore, exogenous application of GA3 markedly reduces the number and the width of tuber, and represses the growth of tuber chain, further confirming the negative impact that GA3 has on tuber development and propagation. Taken together, these results demonstrate that GA3 is involved in tuber development and regulated by the DELLA-dependent pathway in C. rotundus, and plays a negative role in tuber development and propagation.
In this paper, we investigate the pricing of vulnerable European options in a market where the underlying stocks are not perfectly liquid. A liquidity discount factor is used to model the effect of liquidity risk in the market, and the default risk of the option issuer is incorporated into the model using a reduced-form model, where the default intensity process is correlated with the liquidity risk. We obtain a semiclosed-form pricing formula of vulnerable options through the inverse Fourier transform. Finally, we illustrate the effects of default risk and liquidity risk on option prices numerically.
Earth-contact mechanism (ECM), a type of mechanism to keep the system in contact with the earth and to move with the terrain changes. This paper uses the virtual equivalent parallel mechanism (VEPM) to convert the terrain data into the kinematical variables of the moving platform in the VEPM, and further analyzes the performance of the VEPM at each terrain point. Then, the comprehensive performance of the VEPM is chosen as the optimization goal, and a task-oriented dimensional optimization approach combined with the particle swarm algorithm and the neural network algorithm is proposed. This paper conducted a comparative experiment to verify the superiority of the new approach in optimizing the ECM’s comprehensive performance, whose performance analysis also can be applied into the layout design of the ECM. This paper proposed an analysis method to construct the ECM’s performance map based on the digital terrain map, which helps the control system and operator to make the optimal control decision.
The United Kingdom’s idea to adopt a stewardship code sparked a global shareholder stewardship movement. Unsurprisingly, Singapore as a corporate governance leader in Asia, adopted a stewardship code. Based on a superficial textual analysis, the Singapore Code appears to be a near carbon copy of the UK Code. However, this Article, which provides the first in-depth comparative analysis of stewardship in Singapore, demonstrates how Singapore has turned the UK model of stewardship on its head. Rather than enhancing the shareholder voice of institutional investors, shareholder stewardship has been used in Singapore as a mechanism for entrenching its successful state-controlled and family-controlled system of corporate governance. This development has been entirely overlooked by prominent international observers and would be beyond the wildest imaginations of the original architects of the UK Code. Viewed through an Anglo–American lens, this use of “stewardship” may suggest that Singapore has engaged in a corporate governance sham. However, this Article argues the opposite: it appears to be a secret to Singapore’s continued corporate governance success and provides a much-needed Asian (as opposed to Anglo–American) model of good corporate governance for Asia.
We aimed to investigate the associations of Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH)-style diet and Mediterranean-style diet with blood pressure (BP) in less-developed ethnic minority regions (LEMR).
Dietary intakes were assessed by a validated FFQ. Dietary quality was assessed by the DASH-style diet score and the alternative Mediterranean-style diet (aMED) score. The association between dietary quality and BP was evaluated using multivariate linear regression model. We further examined those associations in subgroups of BP level.
A total of 81 433 adults from the China Multi-Ethnic Cohort (CMEC) study were included in this study.
In the overall population, compared with the lowest quintile, the highest quintile of DASH-style diet score was negatively associated with systolic BP (SBP) (coefficient –2·78, 95 % CI –3·15, –2·41; Pfor trend < 0·001), while the highest quintile of aMED score had a weaker negative association with SBP (coefficient –1·43, 95 % CI –1·81, –1·05; Pfor trend < 0·001). Both dietary indices also showed a weaker effect on diastolic BP (coefficient for DASH-style diet –1·06, 95 % CI –1·30, –0·82; coefficient for aMED –0·43, 95 % CI –0·68, –0·19). In the subgroup analysis, both dietary indices showed a stronger beneficial effect on SBP in the hypertension group than in either of the other subgroups.
Our results indicated that the healthy diet originating from Western developed countries can also have beneficial effects on BP in LEMR. DASH-style diet may be a more appropriate recommendation than aMED as part of a dietary strategy to control BP, especially in hypertensive patients.
Metabolically healthy obesity (MHO) might be an alternative valuable target in obesity treatment. We aimed to assess whether alternative Mediterranean (aMED) diet and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet were favourably associated with obesity and MHO phenotype in a Chinese multi-ethnic population. We conducted this cross-sectional analysis using the baseline data of the China Multi-Ethnic Cohort study that enrolled 99 556 participants from seven diverse ethnic groups. Participants with self-reported cardiometabolic diseases were excluded to eliminate possible reverse causality. Marginal structural logistic models were used to estimate the associations, with confounders determined by directed acyclic graph (DAG). Among 65 699 included participants, 11·2 % were with obesity. MHO phenotype was present in 5·7 % of total population and 52·7 % of population with obesity. Compared with the lowest quintile, the highest quintile of DASH diet score had 23 % decreased odds of obesity (OR = 0·77, 95 % CI 0·71, 0·83, Ptrend < 0·001) and 27 % increased odds of MHO (OR = 1·27, 95 % CI 1·10, 1·48, Ptrend = 0·001) in population with obesity. However, aMED diet showed no obvious favourable associations. Further adjusting for BMI did not change the associations between diet scores and MHO. Results were robust to various sensitivity analyses. In conclusion, DASH diet rather than aMED diet is associated with reduced risk of obesity and presents BMI-independent metabolic benefits in this large population-based study. Recommendation for adhering to DASH diet may benefit the prevention of obesity and related metabolic disorders in Chinese population.
Understanding factors associated with post-discharge sleep quality among COVID-19 survivors is important for intervention development.
This study investigated sleep quality and its correlates among COVID-19 patients 6 months after their most recent hospital discharge.
Healthcare providers at hospitals located in five different Chinese cities contacted adult COVID-19 patients discharged between 1 February and 30 March 2020. A total of 199 eligible patients provided verbal informed consent and completed the interview. Using score on the single-item Sleep Quality Scale as the dependent variable, multiple linear regression models were fitted.
Among all participants, 10.1% reported terrible or poor sleep quality, and 26.6% reported fair sleep quality, 26.1% reported worse sleep quality when comparing their current status with the time before COVID-19, and 33.7% were bothered by a sleeping disorder in the past 2 weeks. After adjusting for significant background characteristics, factors associated with sleep quality included witnessing the suffering (adjusted B = −1.15, 95% CI = −1.70, −0.33) or death (adjusted B = −1.55, 95% CI = −2.62, −0.49) of other COVID-19 patients during hospital stay, depressive symptoms (adjusted B = −0.26, 95% CI = −0.31, −0.20), anxiety symptoms (adjusted B = −0.25, 95% CI = −0.33, −0.17), post-traumatic stress disorders (adjusted B = −0.16, 95% CI = −0.22, −0.10) and social support (adjusted B = 0.07, 95% CI = 0.04, 0.10).
COVID-19 survivors reported poor sleep quality. Interventions and support services to improve sleep quality should be provided to COVID-19 survivors during their hospital stay and after hospital discharge.
The dual demographic changes in massive rural-to-urban labour migration and population ageing have significantly impacted the lives of older adults, who have either been left behind in rural regions or migrated to urban areas. While many extant studies on migration and wellbeing of older adults have focused on either migrating or left-behind older adults, a very limited number of studies have directly compared these two groups. Utilising data from the China Longitudinal Ageing Social Survey, this study examines the impacts of different migration patterns (i.e. migrating older adults, left-behind older adults and non-migrating older adults) on the social networks and mental health of older adults in rural China. Structural equation modelling results showed that older adults who have been left behind reported weaker family ties and poorer mental health than the other older adults. Moreover, weakened family ties increased older adults’ risk of developing mental health problems. Older migrants reported the lowest level of depressive symptoms among the three groups of older adults. However, migration may be associated with poorer mental health among the older migrants due to the shrinking/weakening of family/friendship ties.
In the current research, a 60-d experiment was conducted with the purpose of exploring the impacts of methionine (Met) on growth performance, muscle nutritive deposition, muscle fibre growth and type I collagen synthesis as well as the related signalling pathway. Six diets (iso-nitrogenous) differing in Met concentrations (2·54, 4·85, 7·43, 10·12, 12·40 and 15·11 g/kg diets) were fed to 540 grass carp (178·47 (SD 0·36) g). Results showed (P < 0·05) that compared with Met deficiency, optimal level of dietary Met (1) increased feed intake, feed efficiency, specific growth rate and percentage weight gain (PWG); (2) increased fish muscle protein, lipid and free amino acid contents and improved fish muscle fatty acid profile as well as increased protein content in part associated with the target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1)/S6K1 signalling pathway; (3) increased the frequency distribution of muscle fibre with >50 µm of diameter; (4) increased type I collagen synthesis partly related to the transforming growth factor-β1/Smads and CK2/TORC1 signalling pathways. In conclusion, dietary Met improved muscle growth, which might be due to the regulation of muscle nutritive deposition, muscle fibre growth and type I collagen synthesis-related signal molecules. Finally, according to PWG and muscle collagen content, the Met requirements for on-growing grass carp (178–626 g) were estimated to be 9·56 g/kg diet (33·26 g/kg protein of diet) and 9·28 g/kg diet (32·29 g/kg of dietary protein), respectively.
The present study investigated the effects of condensed tannins (CT) on intestinal immune function in on-growing grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). A total of 540 healthy grass carp were fed six diets containing different levels of CT (0, 10·00, 20·00, 30·00, 40·00 and 50·00 g/kg diet) for 70 d and then challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila for 14 d. The results showed that, compared with the control group, dietary CT (1) induced intestinal histopathological lesions and aggravated enteritis; (2) decreased lysozyme and acid phosphatase activities, complement 3 (C3), C4 and IgM contents and down-regulated the Hepcidin, liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide (LEAP)-2A, LEAP-2B, Mucin2 and β-defensin-1 mRNA levels in the proximal intestine (PI), mid intestine (MI) and distal intestine (DI) (P < 0·05); (3) down-regulated the mRNA levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, TGF-β2 (not in MI and DI), IL-4/13A (not IL-4/13B), IL-10 and IL-11 partly correlated with target of rapamycin (TOR) signalling; and (4) up-regulated the mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines interferon-γ2, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 (not in PI), IL-12p35, IL-12p40, IL-15 and IL-17D partly related to NF-κB signalling in the intestine of on-growing grass carp. Overall, the results indicated that CT could impair the intestinal immune function, and its potential regulation mechanisms were partly associated with the TOR and NF-κB signalling pathways. Finally, based on the percentage weight gain and enteritis morbidity, the maximum allowable levels of CT for on-growing grass carp (232·22–890·11 g) were estimated to be 18·6 and 17·4 g/kg diet, respectively.
The giant panda, native to mountains of south-west China, is one of the world's rarest bear species and is subject to considerable conservation effort. In captivity, the proportion of twins accounts for 54% of the total number of births. To date, little is known about zygosity in panda populations — specifically, the proportion of monozygotic and dizygotic twins. In this study, we used 10 microsatellite markers for reliable zygosity testing, and the probability of monozygotic twins was 99.963% when all 10 markers were concordant. Out of 43 studied twin pairs, no MZ twins were found, indicating that there may be no identical panda twins (or the incidence is very low). We speculate that the fertilized eggs of giant pandas do not have the capability to split into two identical embryos, or that this ability is very poor, which is likely due to delayed implantation that is common in bear species. The results of this study deepen our understanding of giant panda breeding, yield insight into panda twins’ likely mechanism of formation, and reduce the uncertainty of individual identity in wild population surveys.
This study aimed to investigate the impacts of dietary threonine on intestinal immunity and inflammation in juvenile grass carp. Six iso-nitrogenous semi-purified diets containing graded levels of threonine (3·99–21·66 g threonine/kg) were formulated and fed to fishes for 8 weeks, and then challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila for 14 d. Results showed that, compared with optimum threonine supplementation, threonine deficiency (1) decreased the ability of fish against enteritis, intestinal lysozyme activities (except in the distal intestine), acid phosphatase activities, complement 3 (C3) and C4 contents and IgM contents (except in the proximal intestine (PI)), and it down-regulated the transcript abundances of liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide (LEAP)-2A, LEAP-2B, hepcidin, IgZ, IgM and β-defensin1 (except in the PI) (P<0·05); (2) could up-regulate intestinal pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-17D mRNA levels partly related to NF-κB signalling; (3) could down-regulate intestinal anti-inflammatory cytokine transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, TGF-β2, IL-4/13A (not IL-4/13B) and IL-10 mRNA levels partly by target of rapamycin signalling. Finally, on the basis of the specific growth rate, against the enteritis morbidity and IgM contents, the optimum threonine requirements were estimated to be 14·53 g threonine/kg diet (4·48 g threonine/100 g protein), 15.05 g threonine/kg diet (4·64 g threonine/100 g protein) and 15·17 g threonine/kg diet (4·68 g threonine/100 g protein), respectively.
This paper presents a novel reconfigurable parallel mechanism, which can serve as a machine tool. The proposed parallel mechanism can change its structure parameters by driving a bevel gear system fixed in the base platform. First, the forward and inverse kinematics of the proposed mechanism are investigated. Second, the reachable workspace and Jacobian matrix are conducted. Based on the Jacobian matrix, the stiffness model and dexterity of the end effector are developed in detail. Finally, a multi-objective optimization is performed by using the Genetic Algorithm, and the workspace and global performance indexes of stiffness as well as the dexterity are considered as the performance indices to improve the performance of the reconfigurable parallel mechanism. Finally, Pareto frontier figure and several tables are provided to illustrate the results of the optimization. The results showed the proposed method has improved the performance of the reconfigurable machine tool in terms of its stiffness and dexterity.
The present study investigated the effects of dietary vitamin A on immune function in the proximal intestine (PI), mid intestine (MI) and distal intestine (DI) of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Fish were fed graded levels of dietary vitamin A for 10 weeks, and then a challenge test using an injection of Aeromonas hydrophila was conducted for 14 d. The results showed that, compared with the optimum vitamin A level, vitamin A deficiency significantly decreased fish growth performance, increased enteritis morbidity, decreased intestinal innate humoral immune response and aggravated intestinal inflammation. However, liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide 2A/B mRNA in the DI and IL-6, IL-17D, IL-10, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and TGF-β2 mRNA in the PI were not affected by vitamin A levels. Meanwhile, vitamin A deficiency disturbed inflammatory cytokines in the PI, MI and DI, which might be partly linked to p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) signalling and NF-κB canonical signalling pathway (IκB kinase β (IKKβ), IKKγ, inhibitor of κBα, NF-κB p65 and c-Rel) rather than NF-κB non-canonical signalling pathway (NF-κB p52 and IKKα). However, the signalling molecules NF-κB p65 and p38MAPK did not participate in regulating cytokines in the PI. These results suggested that vitamin A deficiency decreased fish growth and impaired intestinal immune function, and that different immune responses in the PI, MI and DI were mediated partly by NF-κB canonical signalling and p38MAPK signalling pathways. On the basis of percentage of weight gain, to protect fish against enteritis morbidity and acid phosphatase activity, the optimum dietary vitamin A levels were estimated to be 0·664, 0·707 and 0·722 mg /kg, respectively.
A new lithium ion hybrid supercapacitor is reported, in which the negative electrode was made from ZnO nano-crystals coated with a nitrogen doped carbon, and a positive electrode composed of activated carbon. The ZnO nano-crystals were highly dispersed in a nitrogen doped carbon matrix through a bio-inspired route. Dopamine, used as the nitrogen and carbon source, self-polymerized and deposited onto the surface of ZnO nano-crystal. After pyrolysis, a nitrogen doped amorphous carbon coated ZnO nano-crystal materials were obtained. The characteristics of the synthesized carbon coated ZnO nano-crystal electrode as well as the electrochemical performance of the hybrid device were investigated. The ZnO nano-crystal structure was preserved in the course of the carbon coating. The lithium ion supercapacitor demonstrated a high capacity and good cycling stability. Such good performance can be attributed to improved conductivity, the prevention of ZnO nano particles from pulverization and the high degree of crystallinity of the ZnO material.
A Canadian sample was collected as an aspect of a large international project, with representation from Australia, Canada, China, and Switzerland. In each country, interview and survey data were collected using team-created research tools. Canadian survey data on disability management (DM) perceptions were collected from 218 employees in both public and private organisations. Our Canadian employee sample reported perceived influence of disability prevention on job satisfaction, physical health, mental health, and morale for both themselves and their coworkers. Return to work programs were seen as valuable for job satisfaction of both the employee and coworkers, as well as the physical health of coworkers. Similarly, stay at work programs were seen as valuable for mental health and morale of coworkers. There was no relationship between perceived influence of DM interventions and reduction of sickness absence. The influence of DM was perceived as more positive for private and/or nonunionised workplaces. No gender differences were evident.
Apixaban (Eliquis®) is a novel oral pyrazole-based direct FXa inhibitor. The title compound is an intermediate in the synthesis of the anticoagulant, Apixaban. X-ray powder diffraction data for the title compound, are reported [a = 9.511(5) Å, b = 18.539(2) Å, c = 5.645(3) Å, α = 90°, β = 101.813(1)°, γ = 90°, unit-cell volume V = 974.28 Å3, Z = 2, ρcal = 1.336 g cm−3, and space group P2]. All measured lines were indexed and are consistent with the P2 space group. No detectable impurities were observed.
This study investigated the effects of glycinin on the growth, intestinal oxidative status, tight junction components, cytokines and apoptosis signalling factors of fish. The results showed that an 80 g/kg diet of glycinin exposure for 42 d caused poor growth performance and depressed intestinal growth and function of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian). Meanwhile, dietary glycinin exposure induced increases in lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation; it caused reductions in superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities; and it increased MnSOD, CuZnSOD, GPx1b and GPx4a mRNA levels, suggesting an adaptive mechanism against stress in the intestines of fish. However, dietary glycinin exposure decreased both the activity and mRNA levels of nine isoforms of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) (α, μ, π, ρ, θ, κ, mGST1, mGST2 and mGST3), indicating toxicity to this enzyme activity and corresponding isoform gene expressions. In addition, glycinin exposure caused partial disruption of intestinal cell–cell tight junction components, disturbances of cytokines and induced apoptosis signalling in the distal intestines>mid intestines>proximal intestines of fish. Glycinin exposure also disturbed the mRNA levels of intestinal-related signalling factors Nrf2, Keap1a, Keap1b, eleven isoforms of protein kinase C and target of rapamycin/4E-BP. Interestingly, glutamine was observed to partially block those negative influences. In conclusion, this study indicates that dietary glycinin exposure causes intestinal oxidative damage and disruption of intestinal physical barriers and functions and reduces fish growth, but glutamine can reverse those negative effects in fish. This study provides some information on the mechanism of glycinin-induced negative effects.