Several organisms possess a genetic program enabling them to form a mineral, a process termed biomineralization. The structure and composition of biominerals equip the biomineralizing organisms with functionalities that abiotic materials made of the same mineral do not necessarily possess. Even primary organisms such as bacteria are able to produce materials with properties superior to those of human-made equivalents. Magnetotactic bacteria represent a paradigm of such microorganisms. These organisms synthesize a hierarchical one-dimensional magnetic nanostructure based on the alignment of magnetosomes—organelles embedded in a vesicle dedicated to biomineralization and made of magnetic nanoparticles (magnetite (Fe3O4) or greigite (Fe3S4)). This article focuses on factors that play a role in the organization of these magnetosomes. The chains, which are based on aligned particles that have biologically controlled ultrastructure, size, morphology, organization, and orientation, serve as actuators and area means to align the bacteria with the Earth’s magnetic field lines when they swim in search of particular habitats in the aqueous environments they live in.