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Genes in the sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP1) pathway play a central role in regulation of milk fat synthesis, especially the de-novo synthesis of saturated fatty acids. SCD, a SREBP-responsive gene, is the key enzyme in the synthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids in the mammary gland. In the present study, we discovered SNP in candidate genes associated with this signalling pathway and SCD to identify genetic markers that can be used for genetic and metabolically directed selection in cattle. We resequenced six candidate genes in the SREBP1 pathway (SREBP1, SCAP, INSIG1, INSIG2, MBTPS1, MBTPS2) and two genes for SCD (SCD1 and SCD5) and discovered 47 Tag SNP that were used in a marker-trait association study. Milk and blood samples were collected from Holstein cows in their 1st or 2nd parity at 100–150 days of lactation. Individual fatty acids from C4 to C20, saturated fatty acid (SFA) content, monounsaturated fatty acid content, polyunsaturated fatty acid content and desaturase indexes were measured and used to perform the asociation analysis. Polymorphisms in the SCD5 and INSIG2 genes were the most representative markers associated with SFA/unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) ratio in milk. The analysis of desaturation activity determined that markers in the SCD1 and SCD5 genes showed the most significant effects. DGAT1 K232A marker was included in the study to examine the effect of this marker on the variation of milk fatty acids in our Holstein population. The percentage of variance explained by DGAT1 in the analysis was only 6% of SFA/UFA ratio. Milk fat depression was observed in one of the dairy herds and in this particular dairy one SNP in the SREBP1 gene (rs41912290) accounted for 40% of the phenotypic variance. Our results provide detailed SNP information for key genes in the SREBP1 signalling pathway and SCD that can be used to change milk fat composition by marker-assisted breeding to meet consumer demands regarding human health, as well as furthering understanding of technological aspects of cows' milk.
The aim of this study was to determine whether dietary supplementation with branched-chain amino acids, and the infusion of insulin and dextrose, would increase milk protein secretion in the sow. The experiment involved sixteen lactating sows fed either a normal lactation diet (162 g/kg crude protein, n 8) or a high-protein diet (230 g/kg crude protein, n 8) supplemented with branched-chain amino acids (valine, isoleucine and leucine). Sows were either infused with insulin and dextrose or not infused at all during mid (day 5–10) and late (day 17–22) lactation in a single reversal design. Blood samples were analysed for glucose, and the dextrose infusion rate was adjusted to maintain the blood glucose level within 15 % of pre-infusion levels. Milk (10·1 v. 11·1 kg/d; P=0·014) and\ lactose (628 v. 727 g/d; P=0·002) yield increased with insulin infusion, whereas milk protein content (5·0 % v. 5·5 %; P=0·007) was increased in diets supplemented with protein and branched-chain amino acids. Piglet growth was increased by feeding the higher-protein diet (237 v. 273 g/d; P=0·05) but not significantly increased by insulin infusion (245 v. 265 g/d; P=0·11). These effects were additive such that the combined treatment resulted in a 24 % (56 g/d; P<0·05) increase in piglet growth rate. These data demonstrate that increasing the dietary protein/branched-chain amino acid content can increase milk protein secretion but not milk yield. The infusion of insulin and dextrose increased milk and milk lactose yields, and tended to increase milk protein yield but not milk protein content. These effects are additive and translate to increased protein yield and piglet growth.
Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) have been shown to decrease body fat content in pigs. It is possible that feeding pigs diets rich in CLA may increase carcass lipid CLA to levels that could provide health benefits when included as a part of a healthy diet. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine whether dietary CLA supplementation has any effect on the fatty acid composition of subcutaneous and intramuscular adipose tissue in pigs. Thirty-five female cross bred (Large White×Landrace) pigs (initial weight 57·2kg and initial P2 back fat 11·5mm) were used in the present study. Pigs were housed individually and randomly allocated to one of six dietary treatments (0·00, 1·25, 2·50, 5·00, 7·50 and 10·00g CLA55 (55g CLA isomers/100g total fatty acids; Natural Lipids Ltd, Hovdebygda, Norway)/kg) and fed their respective diets for 8 weeks. Twelve CLA isomers in the diet and in pig tissue lipids were separated by Ag+-HPLC. CLA was incorporated at fivefold higher levels in subcutaneous fat as compared with intramuscular fat and in a dose-dependant manner. Overall, the transfer efficiency of CLA was maximized at 5·00g CLA55/kg. However, there was clear selectivity in the uptake or incorporation of cis,trans-9,11 isomer over the trans,cis-10,12 isomer. In general, CLA supplementation produced significant changes in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue fatty acid composition, indicating that dietary CLA had a potent affect on lipid transport and metabolism in vivo. Significant increases in myristic, palmitic and palmitoleic acids and a reduction in arachidonic acid were observed, suggesting an alteration in activity of Δ5-, Δ6- and Δ9-desaturases in pig adipose tissue. In conclusion, feeding pigs diets supplemented with CLA increases carcass lipid CLA, but also results in changes in the fatty acid profile in pig fat that could potentially outweigh the benefits of CLA.
Thirty female Large White × Landrace pigs (average weight 57·2 (SD 1·9) kg) were allocated to one of six dietary treatments containing 0, 1·25, 2·5, 5·0, 7·5 or 10·0 g 55 % conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) isomers (CLA-55)/kg diet and fed for 8 weeks. Each pig was scanned at 0, 28 and 56 d and again at post slaughter using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to determine the temporal pattern of body composition responses. Values determined by DXA were adjusted using regression equations generated from validation experiments between chemically and DXA-predicted values. Overall, there was a significant linear reduction in fat content with the increasing levels of CLA in the diet (P=0·007, P=0·011, P=0·008 at week 4, week 8 and for the carcass, respectively). The greatest improvement was recorded at the early stages of CLA supplementation and for the highest dose of CLA (week 4, −19·2 % compared with week 8, −13·7 %). In the first 4 weeks of feeding CLA, pigs receiving 10 g CLA-55/kg diet deposited 93 g less fat/d than pigs fed basal diets (P=0·002) compared with only 6 g less fat than control animals in the final 4 weeks. Lean content and lean deposition rate were maximised at 5 and 2·5 g CLA-55/kg diet for the first 4 weeks (P=0·016) and the final 4 weeks of treatment (P=0·17), respectively. DXA estimates of bone mineral content and bone mineral density were not affected by CLA supplementation throughout the experiment. These data demonstrate that dietary CLA decreases body fat in a dose-dependent manner and that the response is greatest over the initial 4 weeks of treatment.
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a collective term used to represent positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid with conjugated double bonds. CLAs have been reported to have a wide range of beneficial effects, including: anticarcinogenic, antiatherogenic, antidiabetic and immune stimulatory. They have been shown to alter nutrient partitioning and lipid metabolism, and reduce body fat in a number of different animal species.
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