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We present ALMA [CII] line and far-infrared (FIR) continuum observations of seven z > 6 low-luminosity quasars (M1450 > −25 mag) discovered by our on-going Subaru Hyper Suprime-Cam survey. The [CII] line was detected in all targets with luminosities of ∼(2−10) × 108 L⊙, about one order of magnitude smaller than optically luminous quasars. Also found was a wide scatter of FIR continuum luminosity, ranging from LFIR < 1011L⊙ to ∼2 × 1012L⊙. With the [CII]-based dynamical mass, we suggest that a significant fraction of low-luminosity quasars are located on or even below the local Magorrian relation, particularly at the massive end of the galaxy mass distribution. This is a clear contrast to the previous finding that luminous quasars tend to have overmassive black holes relative to the relation. Our result is expected to show a less-biased nature of the early co-evolution of black holes and their host galaxies.
Submillimeter galaxies at z > 3 building up their central cores through compact starbursts with an effective radius of 1–2 kpc. Our ALMA high-resolution observations reveal off-center gas clumps in a submillimeter galaxy at z = 4.3, COSMOS-AzTEC-1, as well as a rotation-dominated disk. Exploiting the kinematic properties and the spatial distribution of gas mass surface density, we find that the starburst disk is gravitationally unstable. This result is consistent with a scenario where in-situ clumps are formed through disk instability. On the other hand, we find evidence for an ex-situ clump that does not corotate with the starburst disk. The accretion of such a non-corotating clump could stimulate violent disk instability, driving gas inflows into the central regions of the galaxy. Our results suggest that compact cores are formed through an extreme starburst due to a gravitational instability, triggered by non-corotating clumps.
We present high resolution molecular line observations of dusty AGN and starburst in nearby luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs), VV 114 (band 3/4/7) and NGC 1614 (band 3/6/7/9), with ALMA. Multi-frequency imaging from 4.8 GHz to 691 GHz of NGC 1614 allows us to study spatial properties of the radio-to-FIR continuum and multiple CO transitions, and we find the CO excitation up to Jupp = 6 can be explained by a single ISM model powered by nuclear starbursts. Our processing line imaging survey for VV 114 detected at least 30 molecular lines which show different chemical composition from region to region. Multi-molecule imaging helps us to diagnose the chemical differences of dusty ISM, while multi-transition imaging allows us to investigate gas physical conditions affected by nuclear activities directly.
The Antennae galaxies are a spectacular example of a burst of star formation triggered by the encounter of two galaxies, being an ideal source to understand how the dynamics of galaxy mergers drives star formation. We present archive ALMA CO(3−2) and VLT near-IR H2 spectro-imaging observations, and new ALMA 13CO(2−1) and dust continuum observations, at ~50 pc resolution. Combining tracers of density and velocity structure of the gas and its energetics, we demonstrate that star formation involves a complex interplay of merger-driven gas dynamics and turbulence, and the dissipation of the gas kinetic energy. We focus on a compact, bright H2 source, associated with cold molecular gas and dust continuum emission, located where the velocity gradient in the interaction region is observed to be the largest. The characteristics of this source suggest that we are witnessing the formation, initiated by turbulent dissipation, of a cloud massive enough (~4×106M⊙) to form a super star cluster within 1 Myr.
We present ALMA cycle 0 observations of the luminous merger VV 114. One of the main goals is to investigate mechanisms of molecular line ratio enhancement. Regions with the high 12CO (1–0)/13CO (1–0) and 12CO (3–2)/12CO (1–0) is located at a central filamentary structure (∼6 kpc) in VV 114. The filament consists of the eastern nucleus and the overlap region, where the galaxy disks are colliding. We also investigate these molecular line ratios on the Kennicutt-Schmidt law. VV 114 fills a gap between the “starburst” sequence and the “normal disk” sequence, and regions with the high ratios show the high ΣSFR and ΣH2. We suggest that the high ratios in VV 114 are due to star-forming activities in the both progenitor's nuclei and the merger-induced overlap region.
We present recent results on Karl Jansky Very Large Array (JVLA) deep S-band (2-4 GHz) observation towards a protocluster 4C23.56 at redshift z ∼ 2.5. The protocluster 4C23.56 is known to have a significant over density (∼ 5 times) of star-burst galaxies selected to be Hα line-bright by a Subaru narrow band imaging. Now we have found 25 HAEs associated with the protocluster. These starburst HAEs are likely to become massive ellipticals at z = 0 in a cluster. Various other galaxy populations also reside in this field and the fact makes the field very unique as a tool to understand galaxy formation in a over dense region. Subsequent deep 1100-μm continuum surveys by the ASTE 10-m dish have discovered that several submillimeter bright galaxies (SMGs) coincide with HAEs, suggesting HAEs undergoing dusty starbursts. As star formation rates (SFRs) of HAEs might have been underestimated, we use radio being resistant to dust extinction. We investigate the correlation between SFR1.4 GHz and SFRHα for radio index α = 0.8 to see if the correlation holds for the sources and to check the number of dusty star forming galaxies. Our final results will allow us to evaluate quantitatively how the galaxy formation channel may be different under the condition of over-densities.
Our new compilation of interferometric CO data suggests that nuclear and extended molecular gas disks are common in the final stages of mergers. Comparing the sizes of the molecular gas disk and gas mass fractions to early-type and late-type galaxies, about half of the sample show similar properties to early-type galaxies, which have compact gas disks and low gas mass fractions. We also find that sources with extended gas disks and large gas mass fractions may become disk-dominated galaxies.
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