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Though presidents often criticize organized interests, presidents also expend considerable effort engaging them. Using original elite interviews, a survey of lobbyists, and administrative data, I consider how this engagement manifests, why presidents engage interests, and with which interests presidents engage. Unlike in other institutions, presidents exercise substantial control over engagement with interests, and they engage to mobilize interests’ institutional resources in service of their goals. To optimize mobilization, presidents focus engagement on well-resourced interests and interests who share presidents’ preferences. Pairing over seven million White House visitor log entries from two administrations with lobbying and campaign finance records, I demonstrate that presidential engagement is informed by interests’ electoral and policy resources and partisan alignment, though these characteristics’ substantive effects are modest. My findings highlight coalition building with interests as an underappreciated source of presidential power and elucidate the degree to which presidents amplify the political voice of well-resourced and copartisan interests.
Standard pharmacotherapy for the maintenance of treatment of patients with bipolar I disorder consists of lithium, valproate, or carbamazepine. However, many patients fail to respond to monotherapy with any of these agents, and as a result, psychiatrists often resort to polypharmacy. Findings from some open-label trials and retrospective chart reviews suggest this approach may be useful, but in the few controlled trials that have been conducted, the results have been negative. One drug combination that warrants further study as maintenance therapy is lithium plus valproate. Each is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for treatment of acute mania, and lithium has demonstrated efficacy for maintenance treatment as well. Some preliminary evidence suggests that the combination can be effective for patients who do not respond to monotherapy, and it seems to be no more dangerous than monotherapy. Concomitant administration of lithium plus valproate does not significantly alter lithium pharmacokinetics, and statistically significant changes that arise in valproate pharmacokinetics are not clinically significant. Although it is not known whether the drugs interact to augment response, many of their effects in the central nervous system do differ, and there is no indication of pharmacodynamic interactions that oppose each other. Finally, some evidence suggests that lithium and valproate may differ with regard to clinical variables that predict response to treatment. (J Clin Psychopharmacol 1998;18:38–49)
Bipolar I disorder afflicts approximately 1% of the U.S. adult population, with a median age at onset of 19 years. In many respects, it is a disabling disease. Acute episodes of mania and depression are often protracted with 24% of patients still acutely ill after 1 year has elapsed, 16% after 2 years, and 9% after 5 years. Subsyndromal symptoms, which impose significant morbidity that falls short of meeting full criteria for a mood episode, may occur frequently. Patients with bipolar I disorder are more likely than not to be unemployed or underemployed, less likely to marry and more likely to divorce than matched control subjects, and almost every family perceives the illness as a burden. Even remitted patients manifest poor psychosocial functioning, Ultimately, nearly 19% of patients die from suicide.
We describe the La Silla-QUEST (LSQ) Variability Survey. LSQ is a dedicated wide-field synoptic survey in the Southern Hemisphere, focussing on the discovery and study of transients ranging from low redshift (z < 0.1) SN Ia, Tidal Disruption events, RR Lyræ variables, CVs, Quasars, TNOs and others. The survey utilizes the 1.0-m Schmidt Telescope of the European Southern Observatory at La Silla, Chile, with the large-area QUEST camera, a mosaic of 112 CCDs with field of view of 9.6 square degrees. The LSQ Survey was commissioned in 2009, and is now regularly covering ~1000 square deg per night with a repeat cadence of hours to days. The data are currently processed on a daily basis. We present here a first look at the photometric capabilities of LSQ and we discuss some of the most interesting recent transient detections.