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To assess the prevalence, severity and socio-demographic predictors of household food insecurity among vulnerable women accessing the Canada Prenatal Nutrition Program (CPNP) and to examine associations between household food insecurity and breastfeeding practices to 6 months.
Cohort investigation pooling data from two studies which administered the 18-item Household Food Security Survey Module at 6 months postpartum and collected prospective infant feeding data at 2 weeks and 2, 4 and 6 months. Household food insecurity was classified as none, marginal, moderate or severe. Logistic regression analyses were performed to assess predictors of household food insecurity and associations between household food security (any and severity) and continued and exclusive breastfeeding.
Three Toronto sites of the CPNP, a federal initiative targeting socially and/or economically vulnerable women.
316 birth mothers registered prenatally in the CPNP from 2017 to 2020.
Household food insecurity at 6 months postpartum was highly prevalent (44 %), including 11 % in the severe category. Risk of household food insecurity varied by CPNP site (P < 0·001) and was higher among multiparous participants (OR 2·08; 95 % CI 1·28, 3·39). There was no association between the prevalence or severity of food insecurity and continued or exclusive breastfeeding to 6 months postpartum in the adjusted analyses.
Household food insecurity affected nearly half of this cohort of women accessing the CPNP. Further research is needed on household food insecurity across the national CPNP and other similar programmes, with consideration of the implications for programme design, service delivery and policy responses.
Mental health professionals form an important component of the response teams currently working in the Democratic Republic of the Congo to treat what is historically the second-largest Ebola outbreak. They provide psychological treatment to patients under extraordinary conditions, helping them cope with anxiety and the daily death of other patients.
In September 2016, the annual meeting of the International Union for Quaternary Research’s Loess and Pedostratigraphy Focus Group, traditionally referred to as a LoessFest, met in Eau Claire, Wisconsin, USA. The 2016 LoessFest focused on “thin” loess deposits and loess transportation surfaces. This LoessFest included 75 registered participants from 10 countries. Almost half of the participants were from outside the United States, and 18 of the participants were students. This review is the introduction to the special issue for Quaternary Research that originated from presentations and discussions at the 2016 LoessFest. This introduction highlights current understanding and ongoing work on loess in various regions of the world and provides brief summaries of some of the current approaches/strategies used to study loess deposits.
Using the Rietveld profile method, the atomic coordinates and anisotropic temperature factors of KCaF3 were refined. At room temperature, KCaF3 crystallizes in monoclinic B21/m symmetry, with the lattice parameters: a=8.754(2) Å, b=8.765(4) Å, c=8.760(5) Å, β=90.48(3)°, V=672.1(3) Å3, Z=8. The refinement procedure was stopped when RB=0.05 and the Durbin–Watson statistic factor=0.85 had been reached. The structure determined is related to the tilting of CaF6 octahedra of the a−b+c− type, which are responsible for the monoclinic distortion in perovskite crystals.
Structural antiferrodistortive phase transitions have
been studied in mixed disordered perovskites
Rb1−xKxCaF3 crystals over
a wide concentration range (0 < x < 1) by Raman spectroscopy and a full
group theory analysis has been carried out. Raman spectra have been
indexed in all phases and a “one mode” behavior is evidenced. The
influence of the cationic substitution on the mechanism driving the
transitions is characterized by: i) the disappearance of the strong first-order
character of the low temperature transition in RbCaF3; ii) the
continuous evolution of the Raman spectra as a function of temperature,
with no sharp indication of a transition except for the classical soft mode
behavior; iii) the persistence of hard Raman modes even in the ideal
cubic phase; iiii) the appearance of a broad central component
associated with relaxation processes. Finally, the results of lattice
dynamics calculations, when compared to inelastic neutron scattering
measurements, show that the classical virtual crystal model fails. These
results are examined in terms of a simple displacive transition for these
fluoro-perovskites in which the interactions between F6 octahedra are
anisotropic and the importance of the substitutional disorder is
Researchers and industry are actively developing Software Agents
that will assist users in achieving various tasks, collaborate with them,
even act on their
behalf. To explore new interaction modes for SAs which need to be more
simple exchanges of messages, we have analysed human conversations and
interaction approach for SAs based on a conversation model. Using this
approach, we have
developed a multi-agent system that simulates conversations involving SAs.
We assume that
SAs perform communicative acts to negotiate about mental states, such as
beliefs and goals,
turn-taking and special conversational sequences. We also assume that SAs
communication protocols when they negotiate. In this paper,
we describe the conceptual
structure of communicative acts, the knowledge structures used to
model a conversation, and
the communication protocols. We show how an inference engine using
‘conversation-managing rules’ can be integrated in a conversational
agent responsible for interpreting
communicative acts, and we discuss the different kinds of rules that we
propose. The prototype
PSICO was implemented to simulate conversations on a computer platform.
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