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Aim of the study was assessing motivation to change in a clinical sample of adolescents with anorexia nervosa and its relation to specific cognitions and behaviours.
N= 77 patients with anorexia nervosa (75 female, 2 males, mean age = 15.8, SD = 1.3) were evaluated with Anorexia Nervosa Stage of Change Questionnaire (ANSOCQ) measuring motivation to recover and further questionnaires evaluating treatment and course of the disorder. The latter included Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI-2), the Eating Attitude Test (EAT), the Pros and Cons of Anorexia nervosa questionnaire (PCAN), and the Body Image Questionnaire (FKAN). Data were collected at treatment onset (T1), follow-up was after 12 months (T2).
At T1 motivation to change was significantly related to the EDI subscale measuring drive for thinness (p < .001) and body dissatisfaction (p< .01), to the PCAN pros scales measuring appearance (p< .01) and safe/structure (p< .01), to the EAT scale measuring dieting (p< .001) and the FKAN subscale measuring the feeling of body massivity (p< .001).The stage of motivation to change at treatment onset was very low in the sample (67% in stage 1 = precontemplation or 2 = contemplation). There was no relation between motivation at T1 and BMI at T2 but the increase of motivation between T1 and T2 predicted a better outcome (BMI at T2).
Motivation to change is related to specific cognitions and behaviours in adolescent patients with anorexia nervosa. Increase of treatment motivation during the first months of treatment seems to be predictive for outcome.
The aim of the study was assessing differences in selected psychosocial and behavioural variables between a referred sample of patients with an eating disorder, a non-referred risk sample with eating problems, and a healthy control group.
There were N=100 patients (95 females and 5 males, Mean age = 15.8, SD = 1.3) in the referred sample. The two matched non-referred groups of each N=215 participants (95% females, 5% males; Mean age =16.1, SD = 1.5) stem from the Zurich Adolescent Psychology- and Psychopathology-Study (ZAPPS). Emotional and behavioural problems were assessed using the Youth Self Report (YSR) and a depression scale. In addition, the participants responded to questionnaires covering life events, self-related cognitions, coping capacities, perceived parental behaviour, and family climate.
Compared to both non-referred groups, the referred sample had significantly higher scores on the social withdrawn, anxious/depressed and thought problems scale of the YSR, on the depression and the life events scales, and significantly lower scores on the self esteem scale. Compared to the referred sample, the non-referred risk sample had significantly higher scores on the YSR-scale measuring externalizing problems and the perceived parental rejection scale, but lower scores on the family climate scales measuring cohesion and adaptability.
The three groups were differentiated by various psychosocial and behavioural variables. Externalizing problems and indicators of a poor family climate were more common in a non-referred high-risk group with eating problems than in a referred sample with clinical eating disorders.
Psychiatric intensive care is supposed to offer treatment and to hold patients with psychiatric illness, if they pose a threat to themselves or to others. Besides treating the underlying psychiatric diagnoses, it is also necessary to take care of severe somatic comorbidity, which is often impeded by patients’ limited ability to cooperate. Treatment often requires the administration of sedative medication and occasionally the use of medical restraints. Involuntary commitment, involuntary treatment and the usage of physical restraints is regulated by national mental health laws. Medical professionals working in the field of psychiatric intensive care must have expert knowledge in the fields of psychopharmacology and intensive care medicine. Treatment concepts should be aimed to provide optimized care for psychiatric inpatients in a potentially life-threatening phase of their illness. This article outlines current clinical practice at the psychiatric intensive care unit of the Medical University of Vienna (Austria). Furthermore, we present diagnoses, diagnostic procedures and specific treatments of a sample of 100 consecutive inpatients treated in the years 2008 and 2009 at this ward.
Intensive care at a psychiatric intensive care unit (PICU) traditionally includes the treatment of severely ill psychiatric patients with suicidal or violent behavior .
A chart review was performed including 100 consecutive inpatients (52% females, age: 45.7 ± 17.8 years) treated at the Viennese PICU between 2008–2009.
Psychopharmacotherapy and the rate of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in these patients is reported here.
87% of patients were treated with antipsychotics: 44% with quetiapine (447.7 ± 421 mg), 32% with risperidone (4.3 ± 2.3 mg), 25% with olanzapine (16.9 ± 7.5 mg), 20% with haloperidol (10.5 ± 5.4 mg), 16% with aripiprazole (15 ± 8.4 mg), 6% clozapine (416.7 ± 147.2 mg) and 3% ziprasidone (120 ± 56.6 mg). 36% of patients received treatment with mood stabilizers: 15% with valproic acid, 8% with lamotrigine, 6% with lithium, 4% with pregabaline, 3% with topiramate, 2% with gabapentine and 2% with oxcarbazepine. In 49% of patients antidepressants were prescribed: in 23% selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, in 12% selective dual acting reuptake inhibitors, in 5% tricyclic antidepressants and in 33% other antidepressants (mostly trazodone or mirtazapine). 84% of patients were treated with benzodiazepines (30.3 ± 22.4 mg diazepam equivalents), in 17% the opioid nalbuphin was applied. Intravenous psychopharmacotherapy was used in 31% of cases. 10% of patients received ECT.
Psychotropic compounds with sedative properties are frequently used at the Viennese PICU. However, the dosages for antipsychotics do not appear to be higher than on normal psychiatric wards.
Psychiatric disorders per se or treatment resistance can cause life-threatening conditions. More than 25 years have passed since the term “psychiatric intensive care unit” (PICU) was introduced in the United Kingdom. This system is comprised of security units for psychiatric patients with suicidal or violent behaviour, providing a locked environment with more resources regarding personnel and care. The PICU concept at the Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy in Vienna, Austria, represents a progress towards optimal care of patients with serious psychiatric illnesses who also have critical somatic illnesses. One third of the patients are transferred from inpatient facilities of medical departments such as internal medicine, emergency medicine, trauma surgery or anesthesiology. Our PICU is dedicated to somatically, critically ill patients who have psychiatric symptoms (e.g., agition, aggression, impulsivity, delusions, catatonia, confusion, reduced consciousness, impaired self-reliance) complicating recovery from their critical, somatic condition. Generally, the dosages for antipsychotics are not higher than those at normal psychiatric wards. Benzodiazepine dosages of about 30mg diazepam equivalents per day are frequently used. In the years 2008 and 2009, 10% of all patients at the Viennese PICU were treated with electroconvulsive therapy. Delirium requires immediate therapy of underlying intracerebral pathologies, extracerebral illnesses or toxic features. Involuntary commitment, physical restraints and urinary catheterization were applied in approximately 50% of the patients, nasogastric tube or central venous catheter in 20%. In every case, intensive care nursing, monitoring of vital functions and specific experience at the interface between psychiatry and somatic medicine are required.
Psychiatric intensive care is supposed to offer treatment and to hold patients with psychiatric illness, if they pose a threat to themselves or to others.
A chart review was performed including 100 consecutive inpatients (52% females, age: 45.7 ± 17.8 years) treated at the Viennese psychiatric intensive care unit (PICU) in the years 2008 and 2009. Clinical key features and the distribution of mental disorders (according to ICD-10) in these patients are reported here.
The mean duration of stay was 18.9 ± 14.8 days. 52% of patients were admitted involuntarily. 18% suffered from organic mental disorder (12% from delirium), 20% were diagnosed with mental disorders due to psychoactive substance use (9% alcohol dependency, 6% benzodiazepine dependency, 5% multiple drug use), 16% had a diagnosis of schizophrenia, 10% of schizoaffective disorder and 5% of transient psychotic disorder. 20% suffered from recurrent depressive disorder, 15% from bipolar affective disorder and 3% from a single depressive episode. 8% fulfilled diagnostic criteria of a neurotic, stress-related or somatoform disorder. 12% had eating disorders, 9% had personality disorders and 1% was diagnosed with mental retardation. Only 15% of patients had a first episode of psychiatric illness. 4% were admitted after an accident and 21% after a suicide attempt (45% poisoning, 25% jumping from height, 20% cutting/piercing with sharp object, 5% vehicular impact, 5% self-immolation).
All major psychiatric diagnoses can be found at the Viennese PICU, either if patients are in a life-threatening condition, or if additional somatic illnesses require intensive care management.
Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a subtype of recurrent depressive or bipolar disorder that is characterized by regular onset and remission of affective episodes at the same time of the year. The aim of the present study was to provide epidemiological data and data on the socioeconomic impact of SAD in the general population of Austria.
We conducted a computer-assisted telephone interview in 910 randomly selected subjects (577 females and 333 males) using the Seasonal Health Questionnaire (SHQ), the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ), and the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS). Telephone numbers were randomly drawn from all Austrian telephone books and transformed using the random last digits method. The last birthday method was employed to choose the target person for the interviews.
Out of our subjects, 2.5% fulfilled criteria for the seasonal pattern specifier according to DSM-5 and 2.4% (95% CI = 1.4–3.5%) were diagnosed with SAD. When applying the ICD-10 criteria 1.9% (95% CI = 0.9–2.8%) fulfilled SAD diagnostic criteria. The prevalence of fall-winter depression according to the Kasper-Rosenthal criteria was determined to be 3.5%. The criteria was fulfilled by 15.1% for subsyndromal SAD (s-SAD). We did not find any statistically significant gender differences in prevalence rates. When using the DSM-5 as a gold standard for the diagnosis of SAD, diagnosis derived from the SPAQ yielded a sensitivity of 31.8% and a specificity of 97.2%. Subjects with SAD had significantly higher scores on the SDS and higher rates of sick leave and days with reduced productivity than healthy subjects.
Prevalence estimates for SAD with the SHQ are lower than with the SPAQ. Our data are indicative of the substantial burden of disease and the socioeconomic impact of SAD. This epidemiological data shows a lack of gender differences in SAD prevalence. The higher rates of females in clinical SAD samples might, at least in part, be explained by lower help seeking behaviour in males.
Despite trends towards greater LGBTQ (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer) rights in industrialized democracies, the rights of sexual minorities have become increasingly politicized and restricted throughout Africa. Recognizing religion's central role in shaping attitudes toward gays and lesbians, we hypothesize that local religious diversity could expose individuals to alternative religious perspectives, engender tolerance toward marginalized communities, and therefore dislodge dogmatic beliefs about social issues. Employing cross-national Afrobarometer survey data from 33 countries with an index of district-level religious concentration, we find that respondents living in religiously pluralistic communities are 4–5 points more likely to express tolerance of homosexual neighbors (50% increase) compared to those in homogeneous locales. This effect is not driven by outlier countries, the existence of specific religious affiliations within diverse communities, respondents' religiosity, or other observable and latent factors at the country, sub-national, district, and individual level. Further robustness checks address potential threats to validity. We conclude that religious diversity can foster inclusion of sexual minorities in Africa.
Background: External ventricular drain (EVD) insertion is a common neurosurgical procedure performed in patients with life-threatening conditions, but can be associated with complications. The objectives of this study are to evaluate data on national practice patterns and complications rates in order to optimize clinical care Methods: The Canadian Neurosurgery Research Collaborative conducted a prospective multi-centre registry of patients undergoing EVD insertions at Canadian residency programs Results: In this interim analysis, 4 sites had recruited 46 patients (mean age: 53.9 years, male:female 2:1). Most EVD insertions occurred outside of the operating theatre, using free-hand technique, and performed by junior neurosurgery residents (R1-R3). The catheter tip was in the ipsilateral frontal horn or body of the lateral ventricle in 76% of cases. Suboptimally placed catheters did not have higher rates of short-term occlusion. EVD-related hemorrhage occurred in 6.5% (3/45) with only 1 symptomatic patient. EVD-related infection occurred in 13% (6/46) at a mean of 6 days and was associated with longer duration of CSF drainage (P=0.039; OR: 1.13) Conclusions: Interim results indicate rates of EVD-related complications may be higher than previously thought. This study will continue to recruit patients to confirm these findings and determine specific risk factors associated with them
Background: No standardized method of resident operative-case logging exists. Our study sought to develop a standardized form used by residents to log operative-cases. Methods: Members of the Canadian Neurosurgery Research Collaborative (CNRC), a national resident-led research organization have created a standardized document based on the current Royal College objectives for operative procedures (section 5). Modifications to structure and content will be guided via consensus from Canadian neurosurgery program-directors. Results: Program directors in each CNRC collaborative institution will be asked to modify the standardized form. The CNRC currently involves thirteen of the fourteen Canadian neurosurgery residency programs. Additional consensus, if necessary, can be reached at the Royal College meeting for program directors of neurosurgery March 20th 2017. Conclusions: A standardized operative-case log represents the first step in a prospective study towards compiling operative volume of all Canadian neurosurgical residents over one academic year. Such data will be essential to guide informed decisions with regard to Royal College requirements as Canadian neurosurgical programs transition to a competency based framework.
Background: Communicating with senior neurosurgical colleagues during residency necessitates a reliable and versatile smartphone. Smartphones and their apps are commonplace. They enhance communication with colleagues, provide the ability to access patient information and results, and allow access to medical reference applications. Patient data safety and compliance with the Personal Health Information Protection Act (PHIPA, 2004) in Canada remain a public concern that can significantly impact the way in which mobile smartphones are utilized by resident physicians Methods: Through the Canadian Neurosurgery Research Collaborative (CNRC), an online survey characterizing smartphone ownership and utilization of apps among Canadian neurosurgery residents and fellows was completed in April 2016. Results: Our study had a 47% response rate (80 surveys completed out of 171 eligible residents and fellows). Smartphone ownership was almost universal with a high rate of app utilization for learning and facilitating the care of patients. Utilization of smartphones to communicate and transfer urgent imaging with senior colleagues was common. Conclusions: Smartphone and app utilization is an essential part of neurosurgery resident workflow. In this study we characterize the smartphone and app usage within a specialized cohort of residents and suggest potential solutions to facilitate greater PHIPA adherence
Background: The Canadian Neurosurgery Research Collaborative (CNRC) was founded in November 2015 as a resident-led national network for multicentre research. We present an annual report of our activities. Methods: CNRC meetings and publications were reviewed and summarized. The status of ongoing and future studies was collected from project leaders. Results: In its first year, the CNRC produced two papers accepted for publication in the Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences: A CNRC launch letter and a study of operative volume at Canadian neurosurgery residency programs. Three manuscripts are in preparation: 1) a study of the demographics of Canadian neurosurgery residents, 2) an assessment of mobile devices usage patterns and 3) a validation study of the most utilized neurosurgery mobile apps. In addition, protocols for two multi-centre studies are currently undergoing national Research Ethics Board review: A retrospective study of the incidence and predictors of cerebellar mutism and a prospective registry of external ventricular drain procedures and complications. The network is now a registered not-for-profit organization endorsed by the Canadian Neurosurgical Society. Conclusions: The CNRC is a feasibile, relevant and productive resident-led national research network. As the CNRC matures, we look forward to expanding the scope and impact of its projects.
Background Currently, the literature lacks reliable data regarding operative case volumes at Canadian neurosurgery residency programs. Our objective was to provide a snapshot of the operative landscape in Canadian neurosurgical training using the trainee-led Canadian Neurosurgery Research Collaborative. Methods: Anonymized administrative operative data were gathered from each neurosurgery residency program from January 1, 2014, to December 31, 2014. Procedures were broadly classified into cranial, spine, peripheral nerve, and miscellaneous procedures. A number of prespecified subspecialty procedures were recorded. We defined the resident case index as the ratio of the total number of operations to the total number of neurosurgery residents in that program. Resident number included both Canadian medical and international medical graduates, and included residents on the neurosurgery service, off-service, or on leave for research or other personal reasons. Results: Overall, there was an average of 1845 operative cases per neurosurgery residency program. The mean numbers of cranial, spine, peripheral nerve, and miscellaneous procedures were 725, 466, 48, and 193, respectively. The nationwide mean resident case indices for cranial, spine, peripheral nerve, and total procedures were 90, 58, 5, and 196, respectively. There was some variation in the resident case indices for specific subspecialty procedures, with some training programs not performing carotid endarterectomy or endoscopic transsphenoidal procedures. Conclusions: This study presents the breadth of neurosurgical training within Canadian neurosurgery residency programs. These results may help inform the implementation of neurosurgery training as the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons residency training transitions to a competence-by-design curriculum.
Bovine embryos produced in vivo and in vitro differ with respect to molecular profiles, including epigenetic marks and gene expression profiles. This study investigated the CpG methylation status in bovine testis satellite I (BTS) and Bos taurus alpha satellite I (BTαS) DNA sequences, and concomitantly the relative abundance of transcripts, critically involved in DNA methylation (DNMT1 and DNMT3A), growth and development (IGF2R) and pluripotency (POU5F1) in Bos indicus embryos produced in vitro or in vivo. Results revealed that methylation of BTS were higher (P < 0.05) in embryos produced in vitro compared with their in vivo produced counterparts, while the methylation status of BTαS was similar in both groups. There were no significant differences in transcript abundance for DNMT3A, IGF2R and POU5F1 between blastocysts produced in vivo and in vitro. However, a significantly lower amount of DNMT1 transcripts was found in the in vitro cultured embryos (P < 0.05) compared with their in vivo derived counterparts. In conclusion, this study reported only minor changes in the expression of developmentally important genes and satellite DNA methylation related to the in vitro embryo production system.
Background: The Canadian Neurosurgery Research Collaborative (CNRC) is a new consortium of neurosurgery residency programs set-up to facilitate the planning and implementation of multi-center studies. As a trainee-led organization, it will focus on resident-initiated, resident-driven projects. The goal of this study is to assess the demographics of Canadian neurosurgery residents, with particular focus on their academic and subspecialty interests. Methods: After approval by the CNRC, an online survey will be sent to all Canadian neurosurgery residents and fellows with reminders at 2, 4 and 6 weeks. Anonymous, basic demographic data will be collected. Specific interest towards the various subspecialties, research and academic vs community practice will be measured. The data will be crossed with the ongoing Canadian Neurosurgery Operative Landscape study to assess the impact of case volume on academic and subspecialty interests. Results: This is the first study providing a snapshot of Canadian neurosurgery residents at all levels of training. The study is ongoing and the official results will be presented at the meeting. As one of the first CNRC studies, it will also demonstrate the effectiveness of the collaborative. Conclusions: Understanding the demographics and interests of Canadian neurosurgery residents will allow the CNRC to better fulfill its mission.
Background: The Canadian Neurosurgery Research Collaborative (CNRC) is a trainee-led multi-centre collaboration made up of representatives from 12 of 14 neurosurgical centres with residency programs. To demonstrate the potential of this collaborative network, we gathered administrative operative data from each centre in order to provide a snapshot of the operative landscape in Canadian neurosurgery. Methods: Residents from each training program provided adult neurosurgical operative data for the 2014 calendar year, including the number of surgeries in the subcategories cranial, spinal, and peripheral nerve. Because some residency programs have surgeries distributed among more than one hospital, we calculated mean case load per residency program and per hospital. Results: Interim results from 6 neurosurgery residency programs are presented (with data from other programs forthcoming). Overall, there were on average 2,352 operative cases per residency program (n=6) and 1,176 operative cases per adult hospital (n=12). Among 5 programs with more detailed operative data, the mean numbers of cranial, spinal, peripheral nerve, and miscellaneous surgeries per residency program were 757 (47%), 487 (30%), 47 (3%), and 319 (20%) respectively. Conclusions: We show as a proof-of-concept that a trainee-led nation-wide research collaborative can generate meaningful data in a Canadian context.
Background: The goals of evidence-based neurosurgery are to improve surgical outcomes, reduce complications, and provide an objective basis for altering practice. The need for higher quality studies, typically prospective and multicentre, has been growing especially in light of the evolving complexity of neurosurgical interventions and heterogeneity of patient populations. In the United Kingdom (UK), trainee-led research collaboratives have been established to tackle this problem. Therefore, we sought to evaluate the potential role for a resident-led research collaborative in neurosurgery in Canada based on the UK experience. Methods: A literature review of trainee-led collaboratives was conducted utilizing PubMed and Medline. Identified articles were reviewed for study quality and clinical relevance to explore the potential benefits of collaboratives. Results: In the UK, 27 collaboratives have been established in various specialties by trainees. Some published high quality trials with implications on their clinical fields. Evidence suggests that such endeavors improves trainees’ research skills and may help cultivate a research culture tailored towards clinical trials. Conclusions: Given the growing evidence for research collaboratives in the UK, we propose launching the Canadian Neurosurgery Research Collaborative (CNRC) which currently represents 12 out of 14 neurosurgery programs in Canada, and planning its first multicenter prospective study.