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Direct gaze is the most important mediator of social interaction and communication. Existing studies have evaluated eye movements of patients with schizophrenia by presenting stimuli using photographs or pre-recorded videos, but few directly investigated gaze avoidance in real-world situations.
To investigate the correlation between gaze avoidance and psychopathology in patients with schizophrenia through eye movement measurements in real-life interpersonal situations.
We enrolled 52 clinically stable patients with schizophrenia. Psychopathology was evaluated using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale. After presenting a visual stimulus, eye movements were measured with Tobii Pro Wearable Glasses 2, and deep learning-based emotional recognition using the residual masking network was used for neutral stimulus verification. Statistical analyses were performed using Pearson’s correlation and regression analyses.
Data of 45 participants with verified stimulus neutrality by deep learning image recognition were used for analysis. The first dwelling time was negatively correlated with the PANSS positive syndrome subscale (p=0.028), general psychopathology subscale (p=0.008), total score (p=0.008), 5-factor positive symptoms (p=0.035), and 5-factor depression/anxiety symptoms (p=0.008). The baseline-area of interest (AOI) pupil diameter change was positively correlated with PANSS 5-factor positive symptom scores (p=0.039). After adjusting for additional variables, the same items had a significant effect on the first dwelling time and baseline-AOI pupil diameter change.
Psychopathology, particularly positive symptoms, was associated with gaze avoidance and pupil diameter in patients with schizophrenia. Evaluating the characteristics of eye movements in patients with schizophrenia will enable better understanding of their symptoms.
To investigate the association between parity and the risk of incident dementia in women.
We pooled baseline and follow-up data for community-dwelling women aged 60 or older from six population-based, prospective cohort studies from four European and two Asian countries. We investigated the association between parity and incident dementia using Cox proportional hazards regression models adjusted for age, educational level, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and cohort, with additional analysis by dementia subtype (Alzheimer dementia (AD) and non-Alzheimer dementia (NAD)).
Of 9756 women dementia-free at baseline, 7010 completed one or more follow-up assessments. The mean follow-up duration was 5.4 ± 3.1 years and dementia developed in 550 participants. The number of parities was associated with the risk of incident dementia (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.02–1.13). Grand multiparity (five or more parities) increased the risk of dementia by 30% compared to 1–4 parities (HR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.02–1.67). The risk of NAD increased by 12% for every parity (HR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.02–1.23) and by 60% for grand multiparity (HR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.00–2.55), but the risk of AD was not significantly associated with parity.
Grand multiparity is a significant risk factor for dementia in women. This may have particularly important implications for women in low and middle-income countries where the fertility rate and prevalence of grand multiparity are high.
After an outbreak of pandemic influenza A/H1N1 (pH1N1) virus, we had previously reported the emergence of a recombinant canine influenza virus (CIV) between the pH1N1 virus and the classic H3N2 CIV. Our ongoing routine surveillance isolated another reassortant H3N2 CIV carrying the matrix gene of the pH1N1 virus from 2012. The infection dynamics of this H3N2 CIV variant (CIV/H3N2mv) were investigated in dogs and ferrets via experimental infection and transmission. The CIV/H3N2mv-infected dogs and ferrets produced typical symptoms of respiratory disease, virus shedding, seroconversion, and direct-contact transmissions. Although indirect exposure was not presented for ferrets, CIV/H3N2mv presented higher viral replication in MDCK cells and more efficient transmission was observed in ferrets compared to classic CIV H3N2. This study demonstrates the effect of reassortment of the M gene of pH1N1 in CIV H3N2.
Equine influenza virus (EIV) causes a highly contagious respiratory disease in equids, with confirmed outbreaks in Europe, America, North Africa, and Asia. Although China, Mongolia, and Japan have reported equine influenza outbreaks, Korea has not. Since 2011, we have conducted a routine surveillance programme to detect EIV at domestic stud farms, and isolated H3N8 EIV from horses showing respiratory disease symptoms. Here, we characterized the genetic and biological properties of this novel Korean H3N8 EIV isolate. This H3N8 EIV isolate belongs to the Florida sublineage clade 1 of the American H3N8 EIV lineage, and surprisingly, possessed a non-structural protein (NS) gene segment, where 23 bases of the NS1-encoding region were naturally truncated. Our preliminary biological data indicated that this truncation did not affect virus replication; its effect on biological and immunological properties of the virus will require further study.
Background and objective: Since reports have shown that outpatient preoperative evaluation increases the quality of care and cost-effectiveness, an increasing number of patients are being evaluated purely on an outpatient basis. To improve cost-effectiveness, it would be appealing if those patients who are healthy and ready for surgery without additional testing could be easily distinguished from those who require more extensive evaluation. This paper examines whether published studies provide sufficient data to determine how detailed preoperative history taking and physical examination need to be in order to assess the health of surgical patients and to meet the objective of easy and early distinction.
Methods: A MEDLINE search was conducted from 1991 to 2000 with respect to preoperative patient history and physical examination. Altogether, 213 articles were found, of which 29 were selected. Additionally, 38 cross-references, 7 articles on additional testing and 4 recently published papers were used.
Results: It is questionable to what extent an extensive history is relevant for anaesthesia and long-term prognosis. With respect to physical examination, it seems unreasonable to diagnose valvular heart disease based on cardiac auscultation only, and it is unclear which method should be used to predict the difficulty of endotracheal intubation. The benefits of routine testing for all surgical patients before operation are extremely limited and are not advocated.
Conclusions: The amount of detail of preoperative patient history and the value of physical examination to obtain a reasonable estimate of perioperative risk remains unclear. Although not evidence based, a thorough history taking and physical examination of all patients before surgery seems important until more evidence-based guidelines become available. Diagnostic and prognostic prediction studies may provide this necessary evidence.
We have investigated the electrical characteristics, junction depth and defect of ultrashallow junctions formed by using a plasma doping procedure. Compared with ultralow energy boron ion implantation at 500eV, the plasma doping process exhibits both a shallow junction depth and a low sheet resistance. The junction depths of the plasma doped samples were 15 nm and 33 nm after annealing for 10s at 900 °C and 950 °C, respectively. For the same junction depth, the sheet resistance of the B2H6 plasma doped sample is an order of magnitude less than that of the 500eV B ion implanted sample. Based on cross-sectional transmission electron microscope (TEM) and deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) analysis, the defects formed by the B2H6 plasma doping process can be completely removed by annealing at 950 °C for 10s.
Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was utilized to investigate microstructures of heteroepitaxial SiC/Si films, grown from single-source precursors such as tetramethylsilane [TMS, Si(CH3)4], hexamethyldisilane [HMDS, Si2(CH3)6], and 1,3-disilabutane [1,3-DSB, H3SiCH2SiH2CH3]. In the case of TMS/H2 and HMDS/H2 samples, SiC/Si films grown at relatively high precursor concentration and/or low temperatures showed columnar grains with a high degree of epitaxial relationship with the Si substrate. Higher quality films with larger grains were observed in the case of high temperature and/or low precursor concentration samples, although a high density of interfacial voids was observed. Samples grown from pure 1,3-DSB at a low pressure showed high quality single crystalline films with few interfacial voids. It was suggested that the microstructural behavior of these films closely resembles that of the SiC films formed during the carbonization of Si surfaces by the pyrolysis of hydrocarbons, in which the nucleation rate of the film at the initial stage plays a key role. The improvement achieved during the 1,3-DSB growth is proposed to be due to the low growth pressure and the 1 : 1 ratio of Si and C associated with this precursor.
We have investigated a novel surface cleaning technique of native oxide on Si wafer, in which carbon-related contaminants are removed effectively at room temperature with a pure ozone beam from an ozone jet generator that we developed. Although ozone alone was likely to be little reactive to saturated carbons and byproducts in the reaction of ozone with unsaturated carbons which could be assigned to either carbonyl- or carboxyl-related compounds, a high-dose pure ozone under ultraviolet light irradiation to generate atomic oxygen by the photo-dissociation of ozone removed most of them at room temperature. The effectiveness of the ozone cleaning was also demonstrated for selected oxide surfaces.
The fabrication and characterization of polyaniline (PANI) derivatives deposited on ITO coated glass is investigated as possible hole injection layers for MEH-PPV based polymer light emitting diode (PLED) devices. This involved multilayer ordering by the alternate polyelectrolyte adsorption of polyaniline and sulfonated poyaniline with an oppositely charged polyelectrolyte from solution. A combination of spectroscopic and microscopic techniques was utilized to determine the layer ordering, film structure, morphology, and homogeneity. The deposition process generally showed a linear behavior for all pairs as shown by ellipsometry and UV-vis spectroscopy. However, surface plasmon spectroscopy (SPS) and AFM revealed that thicker films are accompanied by increased surface roughness regardless of concentration. Comparison in performance was made between bare ITO and PANI or SPANI coated devices. Initial investigations of PLED performance showed significant improvements in lifetime and efficiency compared to bare ITO.
The oxidation of Si(111) and Si(100) surfaces with the high-purity ozone(more than 98 mole %) was investigated with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Thin oxide less than 3nm thickens was formed in an experimental chamber and the results showed that ozone oxidizes the (111) surface faster than (100) surface. Ozone does not show the temperature dependence on oxidation within the temperature range of 250–500 degree C for both (111) and (100) surfaces. Ozone proceeds the oxide formation at 700 degree C where oxygen does not proceed oxide formation rapidly.
To lower the temperature of oxide-passivation processing the high- purity ozone (more than 98 mole %) was used instead of usual thermal oxidation. Initial oxide formation on a Si(111) surface with high-purity ozone is investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). From the comparison of the suboxides formed with ozone and oxygen exposures, it is clear that ozone forms less suboxide than oxygen. The oxidation with ozone also proceeds on the hydrogen passivated surface which oxygen molecules do not oxidize.