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A new design for heavy-ion beam driven ramp wave loading experiments is suggested and analyzed. The proposed setup utilizes the long stopping ranges and the variable focal spot geometry of the high-energy uranium beams available at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung and Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research accelerator centers in Darmstadt, Germany. The release wave created by ion beams can be utilized to create a planar ramp loading of various samples. In such experiments, the predicted high pressure amplitudes (up to 10 Mbar) and short timescales of compression (<10 ns) will allow to test the time-dependent material deformation at unprecedented extreme conditions.
Cylindrical cryogenic targets are required to carry out the Laboratory Planetary Science scheme of the experiments of the High Energy Density matter Generated by Heavy Ion Beams collaboration at FAIR. In this paper, for the first time a thorough analysis of the problem of such targets' fabrication, delivery and positioning in the center of the experimental chamber has been made. Particular attention is paid to the issue of a specialized cryogenic system creation intended for rep-rate supply of the High Energy Density matter Generated by Heavy Ion Beams experiments with the cylindrical cryogenic targets.
This paper describes a fast multi-channel radiation pyrometer that was developed for warm dense-matter experiments with intense heavy ion beams at the Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung mbH (GSI). The pyrometer is capable of measuring brightness temperatures from 2000 K to 50,000 K, at six wavelengths in the visible and near-infrared parts of the spectrum, with 5 ns temporal resolution, and several micrometers spatial resolution. The pyrometer's spectral discrimination technique is based on interference filters, which also act as mirrors to allow for simultaneous spectral discrimination of the same ray at multiple wavelengths.
An intense and focused heavy ion beam is a suitable tool to generate
high energy density in matter. To compare results with simulations it is
essential to know beam parameters as intensity, longitudinal, and
transversal profile at the focal plane. Since the beam's energy
deposition will melt and evaporate even tungsten, non-intercepting
diagnostics are required. Therefore a capacitive pickup with high
resolution in both time and space was designed, built and tested at the
high temperature experimental area at GSI. Additionally a beam induced
fluorescence monitor was investigated for the synchrotron's (SIS-18)
energy-regime (60–750 AMeV) and successfully tested in a
Below is the complete Reference citation for Neumayer et al.
Neumayer, P., Bock, R., Borneis, S., Brambrink, E., Brand, H.,
Caird, J., Campbell, E.M., Gaul, E., Goette, S., Haefner, C., Hahn, T.,
Heuck, H.M., Hoffmann, D.H.H., Javorkova, D., Kluge, H.-J., Kuehl, Th.,
Kunzer, S., Merz, T., Onkels, E., Perry, M.D., Reemts, D., Roth, M.,
Samek, S., Schaumann, G., Schrader, F., Seelig, W., Tauschwitz, A., Thiel,
R., Ursescu, D., Wiewior, P., Wittrock, U. & Zielbauer, B.
(2005). Status of PHELIX laser and first experiments. Laser Part.
Intense heavy ion beams from the Gesellschaft für
Schwerionenforschung (GSI, Darmstadt, Germany) accelerator facilities,
together with two high energy laser systems: petawatt high energy laser
for ion experiments (PHELIX) and nanosecond high energy laser for ion
experiments (NHELIX) are a unique combination to facilitate pioneering
beam-plasma interaction experiments, to generate and probe
high-energy-density (HED) matter and to address basic physics issues
associated with heavy ion driven inertial confinement fusion. In one class
of experiments, the laser will be used to generate plasma and the ion beam
will be used to study the energy loss of energetic ions in ionized matter,
and to probe the physical state of the laser-generated plasma. In another
class of experiments, the intense heavy ion beam will be employed to
create a sample of HED matter and the laser beam, together with other
diagnostic tools, will be used to explore the properties of these exotic
states of matter. The existing heavy ion synchrotron facility, SIS18,
deliver an intense uranium beam that deposit about 1 kJ/g specific
energy in solid matter. Using this beam, experiments have recently been
performed where solid lead foils had been heated and a brightness
temperature on the order of 5000 K was measured, using a fast
multi-channel pyrometer that has been developed jointly by GSI and IPCP
Chernogolovka. It is expected that the future heavy ion facility, facility
for antiprotons and ion research (FAIR) will provide compressed beam
pulses with an intensity that exceeds the current beam intensities by
three orders of magnitude. This will open up the possibility to explore
the thermophysical and transport properties of HED matter in a regime that
is very difficult to access using the traditional methods of shock
compression. Beam plasma interaction experiments using dense plasmas with
a Γ-parameter between 0.5 and 1.5 have also been carried out. This
dense Ar-plasma was generated by explosively driven shockwaves and showed
enhanced energy loss for Xe and Ar ions in the energy range between 5.9 to
The Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung (GSI) Darmstadt has
been approved to build a new powerful facility named FAIR (Facility for
Antiprotons and Ion Research) which involves the construction of a new
synchrotron ring SIS100. In this paper, we will report on the results
of a parameter study that has been carried out to estimate the minimum
pulse lengths and the maximum peak powers achievable, using bunch
rotation RF gymnastic-including nonlinearities of the RF gap voltage in
SIS100, using a longitudinal dynamics particle in cell (PIC) code,
ESME. These calculations have shown that a pulse length of the order of
20 ns may be possible when no prebunching is performed while the pulse
length gradually increases with the prebunching voltage. Three
different cases, including 0.4 GeV/u, 1 GeV/u, and 2.7
GeV/u are considered for the particle energy. The worst case is for
the kinetic energy of 0.4 GeV/u which leads to a pulse length of
about 100 ns for a prebunching voltage of 100 kV (RF amplitude). The
peak power was found to have a maximum, however, at 0.5–1.5kV
prebunching voltage, depending on the mean kinetic energy of the ions.
It is expected that the SIS100 will deliver a beam with an intensity of
1–2 × 1012 ions. Availability of such a powerful
beam will make it possible to study the properties of
high-energy-density (HED) matter in a parameter range that is very
difficult to access by other means. These studies involve irradiation
of high density targets by the ion beam for which optimization of the
target heating is the key problem. The temperature to which a target
can be heated depends on the power that is deposited in the material by
the projectile ions. The optimization of the power, however, depends on
the interplay of various parameters including beam intensity, beam spot
area, and duration of the ion bunch. The purpose of this paper is to
determine a set of the above parameters that would lead to an optimized
target heating by the future SIS100 beam.
Experimental investigations of heavy-ion-generated shock waves in
solid, multilayered targets were performed by applying a Schlieren and
a laser-deflection technique. Shock velocity and the corresponding
pressures, temporal and spatial density profiles inside the material
compressed by multiple shock waves, and details of the shock dynamics
were determined. Important for equation-of-state and phase transition
studies, such experiments extend their relevance to inertial
confinement fusion and astrophysical fundamental research.
This paper presents two-dimensional numerical simulations of
heating of matter with intense heavy ion beams. It has been
shown that it is very advantageous to irradiate the target with
two different beams simultaneously, a main high intensity bunched
beam of a heavy element like uranium and an unbunched low intensity
beam of a lighter element like argon. The main beam is used
to heat the target while the second beam is used as a diagnostic
Influence of the shape of the focal spot on compression and
heating of matter has also been studied using an elliptic focal
spot with an ellipticity of 1.5 (semimajor axis is along
y-axis and is 1.5 times the semiminor axis which is
along x-axis). It has been found that the temporal
behavior of the development of density, pressure, and temperature
profiles along different directions is quite different, which
is not the case with a circular focal spot.
At the Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung (GSI, Darmstadt)
intense beams of energetic heavy ions have been used to generate
high-energy-density (HED) state in matter by impact on solid
targets. Recently, we have developed a new method by which we
use the same heavy ion beam that heats the target to provide
information about the physical state of the interior of the
target (Varentsov et al., 2001). This is accomplished
by measuring the energy loss dynamics (ELD) of the
beam emerging from the back surface of the target. For this
purpose, a new time-resolving energy loss spectrometer
(scintillating Bragg-peak (SBP) spectrometer) has been developed.
In our experiments we have measured energy loss dynamics of
intense beams of 238U, 86Kr, 40Ar,
and 18O ions during the interaction with solid rare-gas
targets, such as solid Ne and solid Xe. We observed continuous
reduction in the energy loss during the interaction time due
to rapid hydrodynamic response of the ion-beam-heated target
matter. These are the first measurements of this kind.
Two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations were carried out using
the beam and target parameters of the experiments. The conducted
research has established that the ELD measurement technique
is an excellent diagnostic method for HED matter. It specifically
allows for direct and quantitative comparison with the results
of hydrodynamic simulations, providing experimental data for
verification of computer codes and underlying theoretical models.
The ELD measurements will be used as a standard diagnostics
in the future experiments on investigation of the HED matter
induced by intense heavy ion beams, such as the HI-HEX (Heavy
Ion Heating and EXpansion) EOS studies (Hoffmann et al.,
The dynamics of low entropy weak shock waves induced by heavy
ion beams in solid targets was investigated by means of a schlieren
technique. The targets consist of a metallic absorber for the
beam energy deposition followed by a plexiglass block for optical
observations. Multiple waves propagating with supersonic velocities
at 15 kbar pressures were observed in the plexiglass, for pressures
of up to 70 kbar numerically calculated in the absorbers. Pressures
in the megabar ranges are predicted for a near future beam upgrade,
enabling studies of phase transition to metallic states of H,
Kr, and Xe.
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