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The tripartite model of emotions (TME) specifies a general factor, negative affect (NA), which represents a shared influence on anxiety and depression, and two specific factors, physiological hyperarousal (PH) common to anxiety, and (low) positive affect (PA) common to depression (Clark & Watson, 1991).
To examine the relationships between TME and anxiety and depressive symptoms in children and adolescents.
In the study participated 126 non-referred children and adolescents, aged 10–18 years. TME was assessed by the Affect and Arousal Scale (AFARS). Anxiety symptoms were identified using the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders questionnaire (SCARED). This questionnaire reports five types of anxiety disorders: panic/somatic, generalized, separation, social, and school phobia. Finally, depressive symptoms were identified using the Short Mood and Feeling Questionnaire (SMFQ). Zero-order correlations between all measures were presented.
PA negatively correlated with the depression scale only, −0.2 (p = 0.012), while NA significantly correlated with the depression and all anxiety scale, except the separation anxiety scale (p < 0.05). PH significantly correlated with the depression, panic-somatic and separation anxiety and school avoidance scale. The highest correlations were between the depression (0.39) and panic scale (0.33).
The results indicate that the relationships between TME and symptoms of anxiety and depression in children and adolescents could be partially supported. However, they are consistent with the previous findings that reported that low PA correlate with depression and PH with panic disorder (Chorpita, 2000; Jacques & Mash, 2004; De Bolle, 2010).
There is paucity of published literature on antidepressants in a cost-consequence study design.
Measuring clinical outcomes of pharmacotherapy.
Costs and consequences determination in depressive episode acute medical care.
Cost-consequence analysis;Setting-Serbian tertiary university clinic(2010-2012). Patient visits to attending psychiatrists:baseline, 3,8 weeks. HDRS-17 and Q-LES-Q-SF scale were applied in each of control visits. Resource use patterns and costs were evidenced for up to 14 weeks from study entry. Micro-costing approach allowed for most direct and indirect costs measurement. Costs were expressed in national currency-Central Serbian Dinar(1€≈115.85CSD;2012). Societal perspective and 14 weeks time horizon were adopted. Random selection of 65 depressive patients was based on clinical criteria and their assignment to either one of three different treatment protocols.5 patients were lost to follow up.
There was no statistically significant difference in terms of therapeutic response by the HDRS scores before and after introducing treatment groups(χ2=4.339; ?=0.362). QALY value increased by 11.77(SSRI group);8.93(SNRI)and 12.54 (heterocyclics). Mean cost per QALY was 9,937.51 CSD for SSRI; 7,138.27 CSD in SNRI; and 6,164.96 CSD for heterocyclics. There were 28.69 depression with free days in SSRI, 21.78 days in SNRI, and 30.59 days in heterocyclic group. Cost-effectiveness assessment was was 346.38 CSD per day(SSRI); 327.74 CSD(SNRI), and 201.54 CSD(heterocyclics).
Heterocyclic antidepressants provide highest'value for money' in terms of QALY in depressive episode treatment and its treatment is most cost effective. Cost-consequence evaluations have heavier impact to clinical decision making with regards to major depressive disorder treatment in the absence of clear clinical superiority of any major pharmacological protocol.
In order to compare estimates by one assessment scale across various cultures/ethnic groups, an important aspect that needs to be demonstrated is that its construct across these groups is invariant when measured using a similar and simultaneous approach (i.e., demonstrated cross-cultural measurement invariance). One of the methods for evaluating measurement invariance is testing for differential item functioning (DIF), which assesses whether different groups respond differently to particular items. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cross-cultural measurement invariance of the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) in societies with different socioeconomic, cultural, and religious backgrounds.
The study was organised by the International Child Mental Health Study Group. Self-reported data were collected from adolescents residing in 11 countries: Brazil, Bulgaria, Croatia, Indonesia, Montenegro, Nigeria, Palestinian Territories, the Philippines, Portugal, Romania and Serbia. The multiple-indicators multiple-causes model was used to test the RCADS items for DIF across the countries.
Ten items exhibited DIF considering all cross-country comparisons. Only one or two items were flagged with DIF in the head-to-head comparisons, while there were three to five items flagged with DIF, when one country was compared with the others. Even with all cross-culturally non-invariant items removed from nine language versions tested, the original factor model representing six anxiety and depressive symptoms subscales was not significantly violated.
There is clear evidence that relatively small number of the RCADS items is non-invariant, especially when comparing two different cultural/ethnic groups, which indicates on its sound cross-cultural validity and suitability for cross-cultural comparisons in adolescent anxiety and depressive symptoms.
This study evaluated the measurement invariance of the strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ) self-report among adolescents from seven different nations.
Data for 2367 adolescents, aged 13–18 years, from India, Indonesia, Nigeria, Serbia, Turkey, Bulgaria and Croatia were available for a series of factor analyses.
The five-factor model including original SDQ scales emotional symptoms, conduct problems, hyperactivity–inattention problems, peer problems and prosocial behaviour generated inadequate fit degree in all countries. A bifactor model with three factors (i.e., externalising, internalising and prosocial) and one general problem factor yielded adequate degree of fit in India, Nigeria, Turkey and Croatia. The prosocial behaviour, emotional symptoms and conduct problems factor were found to be common for all nations. However, originally proposed items loaded saliently on other factors besides the proposed ones or only some of them corresponded to proposed factors in all seven countries.
Due to the lack of a common acceptable model across all countries, namely the same numbers of factors (i.e., dimensional invariance), it was not possible to perform the metric and scalar invariance test, what indicates that the SDQ self-report models tested lack appropriate measurement invariance across adolescents from these seven nations and it needs to be revised for cross-country comparisons.
This study was conducted in order to evaluate the effects of mental health and quality of life (QOL) in children and adolescents living in residential and foster care.
Two hundred and sixteen children and adolescents, aged 8–18 years, from residential and foster care participated. QOL was assessed using the Pediatric Quality-of-Life Inventory (PedsQL), levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms using the screen for child anxiety-related emotional disorders (SCARED) questionnaire and the short mood and feeling questionnaire (SMFQ), and general mental health through use of the strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ).
The children and adolescents from residential care had significantly low QOL and more frequently had mental health problems. A stepwise linear regression was performed to test the associations between the SCARED, SMFQ and SDQ scores, and PedsQL (QOL). Anxiety, depressive symptoms and general mental difficulties account for significant variations in QOL (p < 0.001).
Mental health problems have significant negative effects on the QOL of children and adolescents living in residential and foster care.
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