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To examine genetic influences the anatomy of the Corpus Callosum (CC) in Bipolar Disorder (BD) by examining first-degree relatives in addition to BD patients.
We compared CCl size and shape in 180 individuals: 70 with BD, 45 of their unaffected first-degree relatives, and 75 healthy controls. The CC was extracted from a mid-sagittal slice from T1-weighted magnetic resonance images; its total area, length and curvature were compared across groups. A non-parametric permutation method was used to examine for alterations in width of the callosum along 39 points.
Validating our previous findings, a significant global reduction in CC thickness was seen in BD patients, with a disproportionate thinning in the anterior body. First-degree relatives did not differ in CC size or shape from controls. Duration of illness was associated with thinning in the anterior body, whereas Lithium treatment associated with thicker anterior CC midbody.
Global and regional CC thinning is a disease related feature of BD and may not represent a marker of familial disposition.
The shape of the corpus callosum may differ in schizophrenia, although no
study has compared first-episode with established illness.
To investigate the size and shape of the corpus callosum in a large
sample of people with first-episode and established schizophrenia.
Callosal size and shape were determined using highresolution magnetic
resonance imaging on 76 patients with first-episode
schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, 86 patients with established
schizophrenia and 55 healthy participants.
There were no significant differences in total area across groups.
Reductions in callosal width were seen in the region of the anterior genu
in first-episode disorder (P<0.005). Similar reductions were seen in
the chronic schizophrenia group in the anterior genu, but also in the
posterior genu and isthmus (P = 0.0005).
Reductions in anterior callosal regions connecting frontal cortex are
present at the onset of schizophrenia, and in established illness are
accompanied by changes in other regions of the callosum connecting
cingulate, temporal and parietal cortices.