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Identifying distinct dimensions of negative symptoms in First Episode Schizophrenia (FES) might result in a better understanding and treatment of this invalidating symptomatology.
Aim of this study was to examine negative symptom structure in FES patients using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS).
All 147 participants, aged 12–35 years, completed the PANSS and the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scale. A principal component analysis with varimax rotation was performed to investigate PANSS negative symptom structure in the FES total sample.
A 2-factor model (i.e. “Expressive Deficits” and “Asociality” dimensions) was identified. Only “Expressive Deficits” domain had a significant negative correlation with baseline GAF score.
This bipartite solution seems to be adequate to describe the phenomenological variety of negative symptoms experienced by FES individuals at the point of entry in early intervention services.
QTc interval prolongation is considered a risk factor for fatal polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, which can result in sudden cardiac death. Most psychotropic drugs have a dose-dependent potential to prolong the QTc interval. However, other factors require appropriate consideration, including: age; gender; other medications; electrolyte abnormalities; severe comorbid conditions, such as co-occurring alcohol or substances abuse/dependence.
The objective was to study the potential mediating roles of alcohol/substances abuse on QTc prolongation.
The Italian research group STAR Network, in collaboration with the Young Italian Psychiatrists Association, aimed to evaluate the frequency of QTc interval prolongation in a sample of patients under treatment with psychotropic drugs through a cross-sectional national survey.
A sample of 2411 unselected patients were enrolled after performing an ECG during the recruitment period. Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics were collected from medical records. Collected data underwent statistical analysis.
A total of 11.2% of patients reported alcohol abuse, and only 8.9% psychotropic substances. According to the threshold, less than 20% of patients had a borderline value of QTc, and 1% a pathological value. Patients with co-occurring alcohol misuse and drug abuse were more likely to have longer QTc interval.
The present study describes the frequency of QTc prolongation in real-world clinical practice. Before prescribing a psychotropic drug, the physician should carefully assess its risks and benefits to avoid this type of adverse reaction, particularly when additional risk factors are present. The potential role of alcohol and substances on QTc length could be particularly useful in emergency settings.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Jumping to conclusions (JTC), which is the proneness to require less information before forming beliefs or making a decision, has been related to formation and maintenance of delusions. Using data from the National Institute of Health Research Biomedical Research Centre Genetics and Psychosis (GAP) case–control study of first-episode psychosis (FEP), we set out to test whether the presence of JTC would predict poor clinical outcome at 4 years.
One-hundred and twenty-three FEP patients were assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) and the probabilistic reasoning ‘Beads’ Task at the time of recruitment. The sample was split into two groups based on the presence of JTC bias. Follow-up data over an average of 4 years were obtained concerning clinical course and outcomes (remission, intervention of police, use of involuntary treatment – the Mental Health Act (MHA) – and inpatient days).
FEP who presented JTC at baseline were more likely during the follow-up period to be detained under the MHA [adjusted OR 15.62, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.92–83.54, p = 0.001], require intervention by the police (adjusted OR 14.95, 95% CI 2.68–83.34, p = 0.002) and have longer admissions (adjusted IRR = 5.03, 95% CI 1.91–13.24, p = 0.001). These associations were not accounted for by socio-demographic variables, IQ and symptom dimensions.
JTC in FEP is associated with poorer outcome as indicated and defined by more compulsion police intervention and longer periods of admission. Our findings raise the question of whether the implementation of specific interventions to reduce JTC, such as Metacognition Training, may be a useful addition in early psychosis intervention programmes.
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