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The role of Campylobacter jejuni as the triggering agent of Guillain–Barré syndrome (GBS) has not been reassessed since the end of the 1990s in France. We report that the number of C. jejuni-related GBS cases increased continuously between 1996 and 2007 in the Paris region (mean annual increment: 7%, P = 0·007).
High strain conditions can lead to a variety of atomic transformations in nanotubes, which usually occur via successive bond rotations. The energetic barrier for the rotation is dramatically lowered by strain, and ab initio results for its strain dependence are presented. While very high strain rates must lead to tube breakage, (n,m) nanotubes with n, m < 14 can display plastic flow under suitable conditions. This occurs through the formation of a 5-7-7-5 defect, which then splits into two 5-7 pairs. The index of the tube changes between the 5-7 pairs, potentially leading to metal-semiconductor junctions. The high strain conditions can be imposed on the tube via, e.g., AFM tip manipulations, and we show that such procedures can lead to intratube device formation.
The defects and the index changes occurring during the mechanical transformations also affect the electrical properties of nanotubes. We have computed the quantum conductances of strained defective and deformed tubes using the tight binding method. The results show that the defect density and the contacts play key roles in reducing the conductance at the Fermi energy. We also explored the role of bending in changing the electrical properties and found that mechanical deformations affect differently the transport properties of achiral and chiral nanotubes. Our results are in good agreement with recent experimental data.
We present the results of a large-scale molecular dynamics investigation of addimers on strained carbon nanotubes. We find that addimers induce a new set of transformations that lead to the formation of extended defects that are actually short segments of tubes of altered helicity. As these defects wrap themselves about the circumference of the nanotube, this suggests that the combination of addimers and strain may well lead to the formation of nanotube-based quantum dots. The formation of these quantum dots is most favorable for the (n.O) zigzag tubes. For these tubes, addimers induce plastic transformations in tubes that normally display brittle behavior.
We report on large-scale three-dimensional simulations of phase separation in model binary alloy systems in the presence of elastic fields. The elastic field has several important effects on the morphology of the system: the ordered domains are subject to shape transformations, and spatial ordering. In contrast to two-dimensional system, no significant slowing down in the growth is observed. There is also no evidence of any “reverse coarsening” of the domains.
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