To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Intramuscular connective tissue (IMCT) is mainly composed of several fibrils (known as total collagen (TCol)) linked between each other by different chemical cross-links (CLs), the whole being embedded in a matrix of proteoglycans (PGs). In the field of beef quality, there is limited information on the role of CLs and PGs. Accordingly, several authors suggest that, to investigate the role of IMCT, it is important to investigate them just like TCol and insoluble collagen (ICol). In muscle, there are two other components, the muscle fibres and intramuscular fat (IMF) content. There are limited data on the relationships between these three components of muscle and then on possibility to independently manipulate these characteristics in order to control the final quality of meat. The present study aimed to investigate whether consistent relationships exist between these different components of muscle. Therefore, the present study compared four muscles of two cattle types (dairy and beef) to determine associations between TCol, ICol, CLs and PGs. Data were analysed across and within muscle (M) and animal type (AT) based on residuals. There was a strong M and AT effect for all muscle characteristics and an interaction M × AT for type I muscle fibres and IMF. Correlations between TCol, ICol and their CLs were M- and AT-independent. Total proteoglycans were positively correlated with TCol and ICol in a muscle-dependent manner irrespective of AT, but no correlation was found with CLs. On the contrary, CLs were negatively correlated with the ratio TPGs : TCol in an M-dependent manner, irrespective of AT. TCol, ICol and CLs were positively and negatively correlated with type IIA and IIB+X muscle fibres only in longissimus thoracis (LT) muscle, regardless the AT. Insoluble collagen was the only parameter of IMCT to be correlated with type I muscle fibres but only in LT muscle, irrespective of AT. There was no correlation between PGs and muscle fibre types, but PGs were the only IMCT component to be related with IMF in an M-dependent manner, irrespective of AT. Finally, there was no correlation between muscle fibre types and IMF content within M and AT. This study revealed that there is a strong relationship between IMCT components irrespective of M, an M-dependent relationship between the IMCT components and muscle fibre types and few (only with PGs) or no relationship between IMF and IMCT and muscle fibres.
After observing wild chimpanzees in Taï National Park, Côte d’Ivoire, for years, Professor Christophe Boesch and collaborators noticed behaviours indicating that the chimpanzees knew where they were heading hours before arrival. One can assume that animals living in such complex environments should possess developed cognitive abilities. To study their intelligence in the wild, we followed adult chimpanzees for long consecutive periods and collected detailed behavioural data including measurements of travel direction and distances, and feeding tree properties. We examined their spatial orientation abilities and found they travelled in a goal-directed manner, using different directions to reach the same feeding tree rather than using the same paths, which was consistent with the use of a Euclidean map. The content of their spatiotemporal memory, and revisiting and ranging behaviour, revealed that chimpanzees remembered the characteristics of the feeding trees and feeding experiences, and that the nutrient content of fruit impacted their travel path. Our investigations revealed that chimpanzees used many food-finding strategies, adding pieces to the puzzle of our closest relatives.
Background: A randomized controlled trial has shown that supervised, facility-based exercise training is effective in improving glycemic control in type 2 diabetes. However, these programs are associated with additional costs. This analysis assessed the cost-effectiveness of such programs.
Methods: Analysis used data from the Diabetes Aerobic and Resistance Exercise (DARE) clinical trial which compared three different exercise programs (resistance, aerobic or a combination of both) of 6 months duration with a control group (no exercise program). Clinical outcomes at 6 months were entered for individual patients into the UKPDS economic model for type 2 diabetes adapted for the Canadian context. From this, expected life-years, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) and costs were estimated for all patients within the trial.
Results: The combined exercise program was the most expensive ($40,050) followed by the aerobic program ($39,250), the resistance program ($38,300) and no program ($31,075). QALYs were highest for combined (8.94), followed by aerobic (8.77), resistance (8.73) and no program (8.70). The incremental cost per QALY gained for the combined exercise program was $4,792 compared with aerobic alone, $8,570 compared with resistance alone, and $37,872 compared with no program. The combined exercise program remained cost-effective for all scenarios considered within sensitivity analysis.
Conclusions: A program providing training in both resistance and aerobic exercise was the most cost-effective of the alternatives compared. Based on previous funding decisions, exercise training for individuals with diabetes can be considered an efficient use of resources.
In this work we examine the development of ion beam modified oxide-nitride-oxide structures formed by low-energy (1 keV) implantation of Si, N and Ar ions (1x1016 ions/cm2) into oxide-nitride gate stacks and subsequent wet-oxidation to form the blocking oxide. Transmission electron microscopy indicates that the thickness of the blocking oxide layer is strongly affected by the implantation process going from 1 nm (non-implanted sample) to 4-5 nm (N and Ar implants) and 7.5 nm (Si implant). The Si implanted stacks exhibit the highest attainable memory window (∼ 8.5 V for a 1 ms pulse regime), which involve both electron and hole storage. In contrast the thinner blocking oxide that develops to the nitrogen and argon implanted stacks limits the memory window which is due only to electron trapping. Room temperature charge retention measurements of the programming state reveal that the electron loss rate is faster in samples implanted with Si than N, allowing for a memory window of 1.7 V and 2.5 V respectively after ten years extrapolation. This retention behavior is mainly attributed to the different nature of the traps generated in the implanted materials.
In this paper, the growth of thin and dense films of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on Fe–Co/TiN/Si(100) substrates is reported. Special attention is held to the preparation of the TiN buffer layers. This layer is deposited by pulse laser deposition at high temperature with a high texturation according to [TiN(100)//Si(100)]. Further ammonia heat treatment is performed at 623 K to control a Ti:N stoichiometry and remove oxygen impurity. Fe and Co as catalysts are subsequently deposited at high temperature (923 K) at the monolayer level with two ultrahigh vacuum evaporator cells. The growth of CNTs is performed by a direct-current plasma-enhanced and hot filaments-assisted catalytic chemical vapor deposition (dc HF CCVD) process. Highly dense films of CNTs, are obtained with only 0.5 nm Fe(Co) evaporated. Observations by transmission electron microscopy show that most of the CNTs display sizes in the 2.5–6 nm range, most of them with a double-wall (DW). This is in agreement with spectral features of the Raman radial breathing modes (RBM) in the 70–130 cm−1 range. Generally, these large-diameter DWCNTs display a high defect density with morphologies partially collapsed into flattened twisted shapes.
A method of forming a sheet of Ge nanocrystals in a SiO2 layer based on molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and rapid thermal processing (RTP) is presented. The method takes advantage of the very high precision by which a very thin Ge layer can be deposited by MBE. With proper choice of process parameters the nanocrystal size can be varied between ∼3 and ∼8 nm and the area-density between ∼1×1011 and ∼1×1012 dots/cm2. The tunneling oxide thickness is determined by the thickness of a thermally grown SiO2 layer, and is typically 4 nm. C-V measurements of MOS capacitors reveal hole and electron injection from the substrate into the nanocrystals. Memory windows of about 0.2 and 0.5 V for gate-voltage sweeps of 3 and 6 V, respectively, are achieved.
In this work, we demonstrate a MISFET memory device that incorporates a monolayer of Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) deposited gold nanoparticles as floating gate charge storage elements. The FET device is fabricated on a SOI substrate using conventional silicon processing. The nanoparticle layer is separated from the channel area of the FET with a 5 nm thermal SiO2 layer and is isolated from Al gate contact with a LB-deposited organic insulator layer. The memory effect is tested using voltage pulses on the gate of the device and monitored through drain current measurements. The nanocrystals can be charged either from the channel through the thermal oxide layer by applying pulses smaller than 5 V or from the gate through the organic insulator for higher voltage depending on the pulse duration.
The high precision X-ray spectroscopy studies of plasma created
from the CO2 clusters in gas jet targets by the
ultrashort laser pulses (35 and 60 fs duration) were performed
at the intensities IL ∼
1017–1018 W cm−2. The
spectral line shape of the H-like and He-like oxygen ions gains
an asymmetry with increasing the laser pulse intensity. Theoretical
modeling of the line shape shows that the asymmetry can be
explained by absorption of the Doppler-shifted line radiation
from the essential fraction of ions (over 10−3)
with energies above 1 MeV due to photoionization of inner shells
of carbon ions. The results obtained demonstrate measurement
capabilities of the X-ray spectral measurements of multicharged
ions accelerated during the interaction with a laser radiation.
Background. A 10-question screening scale of psychological distress and a six-question short-form scale embedded within the 10-question scale were developed for the redesigned US National Health Interview Survey (NHIS).
Methods. Initial pilot questions were administered in a US national mail survey (N = 1401). A reduced set of questions was subsequently administered in a US national telephone survey (N = 1574). The 10-question and six-question scales, which we refer to as the K10 and K6, were constructed from the reduced set of questions based on Item Response Theory models. The scales were subsequently validated in a two-stage clinical reappraisal survey (N = 1000 telephone screening interviews in the first stage followed by N = 153 face-to-face clinical interviews in the second stage that oversampled first-stage respondents who screened positive for emotional problems) in a local convenience sample. The second-stage sample was administered the screening scales along with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID). The K6 was subsequently included in the 1997 (N = 36116) and 1998 (N = 32440) US National Health Interview Survey, while the K10 was included in the 1997 (N = 10641) Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Well-Being.
Results. Both the K10 and K6 have good precision in the 90th–99th percentile range of the population distribution (standard errors of standardized scores in the range 0·20–0·25) as well as consistent psychometric properties across major sociodemographic subsamples. The scales strongly discriminate between community cases and non-cases of DSM-IV/SCID disorders, with areas under the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve of 0·87–0·88 for disorders having Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scores of 0–70 and 0·95–0·96 for disorders having GAF scores of 0–50.
Conclusions. The brevity, strong psychometric properties, and ability to discriminate DSM-IV cases from non-cases make the K10 and K6 attractive for use in general-purpose health surveys. The scales are already being used in annual government health surveys in the US and Canada as well as in the WHO World Mental Health Surveys. Routine inclusion of either the K10 or K6 in clinical studies would create an important, and heretofore missing, crosswalk between community and clinical epidemiology.
In this paper we report measurement of the silicon diffusion coefficient in silicon dioxide films using isotopically enriched 28Si silicon dioxide layers. 30Si atoms are introduced in excess in a stoichiometric isotopically pure silicon dioxide layer either by ion implantation or by a predeposition technique and the time evolution of the 30Si concentration profile under various thermal conditions is monitored using SIMS. The estimated diffusivity values are significantly higher than previouslyreported values for Si diffusion within a stoichiometric oxide and closer to reported values for excess Si diffusion within an oxide.
Rare gas or lead clusters of several hundreds to many thousands
of atoms per cluster were irradiated by intense laser pulses
producing peak intensities up to 1017W/cm2.
Fast, highly charged fragment ions were observed by means of
standard TOF mass spectrometry as well as a magnetic deflection
TOF device (MDTOF). Charge states of up to Xe30+
or Pb18+ were detected with maximum kinetic energies
reaching far beyond 100 keV for Xe. A strong dependence of the
charging and heating process on the laser pulse duration was
found. While the resulting ionic fragment spectra are qualitatively
similar for rare gas and lead clusters, the kinetic energies for the
metal clusters seem to be significantly lower.
Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM) has been used to follow the dynamic structure evolution of two protein/polysaccharide mixed biopolymer gel systems during large strain deformation. Gelatin/maltodextrin composites exhibited a ‘;pseudo-yielding’ stress-strain response in both tension and compression, when the gelatin-rich phase is continuous, which was attributed to debonding of the particle/matrix interface. This behaviour was significantly less apparent for gelatin/agarose mixed gels. The interfacial fracture energy of the two systems was determined using an elastomer composite debonding model. The gelatin/maltodextrin interfacial fracture energy (∼0.2 J.m-2) was found to be an order of magnitude less than for gelatin/agarose, leading to the observed variation for the two systems.
The series of normal saturated dicarboxylic acids, their diethyl esters and mono-ethyl esters have been investigated by means of X-rays, and from the measurement of the principal spacings a definite chain structure has been assigned to each series. Mathematical formulæ derived by Shearer for similar series of compounds have been applied to these structures, and the intensity distribution among the several orders of reflection from the principal planes calculated. These calculated results have been compared with those actually observed from the plates, and the agreement was found to be good in every case, thus confirming the chain structures assigned by the authors to the above series of compounds.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.