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The Lake Titicaca Grebe Rollandia microptera is a poorly studied endemic species found in the Lake Titicaca watershed of Peru and Bolivia. Multiple surveys from the early 2000s indicated that the species was suffering a rapid population decline with an unknown cause. At the same time as these surveys, reports emerged that there was an increase in burning of the totora wetlands which are thought to be the primary habitat for the Lake Titicaca Grebe. However, since 2003, no work has been published either on the current population of the Lake Titicaca Grebe, or the extent of the totora wetlands in the Lake Titicaca region. This paper used satellite data to monitor the change in extent of habitat potentially suitable for the Lake Titicaca Grebe to determine whether habitat loss is likely to be a major driver of population declines in this species. We found that the extent of potentially suitable wetland remained stable between 2001 and 2020, though there are more local regional trends of change in extent of totora. We also found that multiple areas exist that might support Lake Titicaca Grebe populations, but where ornithological knowledge is lacking. We suggest no change to the IUCN status of the Lake Titicaca Grebe, but recommend that further fieldwork is required to monitor the species’ current population, especially in previously unstudied but potentially habitable areas.
Without participating in a contractile chamber, the Fontan procedure seeks to create a separation of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood in patients with univentricular heart, reducing the risks of long-term hypoxemia and improving their survival. This study describes the clinical outcomes of children undergoing the Fontan procedure between 2000 and 2020 in a tertiary referral hospital care centre in southwestern Colombia.
Materials and methods:
A retrospective observational descriptive study. The 81 patients who underwent the Fontan procedure were included. Categorical variables were presented with percentages and continuous variables with measures of central tendency according to the distribution of the data evaluated through the Shapiro–Wilk test. Sociodemographic, clinical, surgical variables, complications, and mortality were described.
Between 2000 and 2020, 81 patients underwent the Fontan procedure: 43 (53.1%) males and a median age of 5.3 years (interquartile range 4.3–6.6). The most common diagnosis was tricuspid atresia (49.4%). The median mean pulmonary arterial pressure was 12 mmHg (interquartile range 10–15), the Nakata index 272 mm2/m2 (interquartile range 204–327), and the McGoon index (interquartile range 1.86–2.3). Seventy-two (88.9%) patients underwent extracardiac Fontan and 44 (54.3%) patients underwent fenestration. The median hospitalisation days were 19 days. The main complication was coagulopathy (19.8%), mortality in the first month between 2000 and 2010 was 8.6%, and after 2010 was 1.2%.
The Fontan procedure is a palliative surgery for children with complex heart disease. According to anatomical and physiological variables, the proper choice of patients determines the short- and long-term results.
The outcome of the famous 1976 Judgment of Paris, a blind wine tasting of ten wines by nine French judges, brought American wines to the forefront of the wine business. A Californian wine, the 1973 Stag's Leap Wine Cellars S.L.V. Cabernet Sauvignon, was declared the winner, surpassing four highly prized French wines (Château Mouton-Rothschild 1970, Château Montrose 1970, Château Haut-Brion 1970, and Château Léoville Las Cases 1971). We collect ratings from experts for (almost) all vintages of the same ten wines over the years 1968–2021 and find that the Stag's Leap Cabernet Sauvignon is far from being first. We conclude that either the 1973 vintage was overrated by the experts who tasted it in 1976, or 1973 was merely an outlier in this winery.
Childhood maltreatment (CM) is one of the best described environmental risk factors for developing any psychiatric disorder, while it also confers increased odds for obesity, cardiometabolic disorders and all-cause mortality. Inflammation has been suggested to mediate the widespread clinical effects of CM. Previously, Ligthart et al. (2016) identified a polyepigenetic signature of circulating CRP levels, a measure of chronic low-grade inflammation, that has been reliably associated with a wide array of complex disorders. The study of this biomarker could dilucidate the mechanistic relationship between CM and psychiatric outcomes.
Thus, CRP-associated epigenetic modifications were explored regarding proximal exposure to CM.
Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 157 children and adolescents (7 to 17 years old). Exposure to CM was assessed following the TASSCV criteria. Genome-wide DNA methylation was assessed by means of the EPIC array. Fifty-two out of the 58 original CRP-associated CpG sites surpassed quality control and were included in the analysis. Age, sex, psychopathological status and cell type proportions were included as covariates.
DNA methylation at 12 out of 52 CpG sites (23%) was significantly associated with exposure to CM (p < .05); 8 of these associations survived correction for multiple testing (q < .05).
This is the first study to date to explore the relationship between childhood maltreatment and an epigenetic signature of chronic low-grade inflammation. Our findings underscore the presence of immune dysregulation early after exposure to CM; further studies are needed to assess the long-term clinical implications of this signature in psychiatric patients.
States compatible with “Delusional disorder” have been described since the XIX century. Esquirol mentioned “irrational ideas and actions that would develop via logical and plausible arguments”; Kraepelin referred to the condition as “paranoia” and considered that hallucinations could not be present– unlike Bleuler, who considered them to be a possible feature. The criteria for delusional disorder have suffered several changes in the last centuries.
We aim to review the evolution of the criteria for delusional disorder across the editions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM).
Review of DSM editions.
Criteria for the diagnosis of “paranoia” (DSM III) or “delusional disorder” (DSM III-IV.V) underwent several changes. In the first editions hallucinations could not be prominent (DSM-III-IIIR) and in the DSM IV, only tactile or olfactory hallucinations related to delusions could be present. In DSM-V hallucinations of other modalities related to the delusional theme can be present. Regarding delusional themes, the first edition of the DSM III regarded persecutory delusions only – which was changed in the DSM-III-R, with the inclusion of grandiose, jealous, erotomaniac, and somatic. Only in the DSM-V did the occurrence of bizarre delusions become possible in delusional disorder. Across the editions, there is a consensus about the absence of negative symptoms, absence of disorganized speech, and that the behavior is not odd aside from delusional content.
The most debatable symptoms across centuries in the classification of delusional disorders were: presence of hallucinations, the nature of the delusional content, and inclusion of bizarre delusions.
First-episode psychosis is a critical period for early interventions to reduce the risk of poor outcomes and relapse as much as possible. There are now many studies revealing the patterns of course in the short and medium terms, but uncertainties about the long-term outcomes of symptomatology remain to be ascertained.
First, we ascertained whether the structure of psychopathological symptoms, dimensions and domains of psychopathology remains invariant over time between first-episode psychosis and long-term follow-up. Second, we analysed the changes in the interrelationships of psychopathological symptoms, dimensions and domains of psychopathology between FEP and long-term follow-up at three levels.
We performed network analysis to investigate first-episode and long-term stages of psychosis at three levels of analysis: micro, meso and macro. The sample was a cohort of 510 patients with first-episode psychoses from the SEGPEP study, who were reassessed at the long-term follow-up (n = 243). We used the Comprehensive Assessment of Symptoms and History (CASH) for their assessments.
Our results showed a similar pattern of clustering between first episodes and long-term follow-up in seven psychopathological dimensions at the micro level, 3 and 4 dimensions at the meso level, and one at the macro level. They also revealed significant differences between first-episode and long-term network structure and centrality measures at the three levels.
Our findings suggest that disorganization symptoms have more influence in long-term stabilized patients. The main results of the current study add evidence to the hierarchical, dimensional and longitudinal structuring of first-episode psychoses.
Threatened preterm labor (TPL) is a traumatic event during pregnancy that involves a threat to the physical integrity of the upcoming baby. Despite biomarkers would be the strongest delivery date predictors, an assessment of chronic and acute stress response to TPL diagnosis may improve this prediction.
The objective is to predict delivery date in women with TPL based on their response to this diagnosis and chronic stressors, along with relevant obstetric variables.
A prospective cohort study was conducted with a sample was formed by 157 pregnant women with TPL diagnosis between 24 and 31 weeks. Determination of salivary cortisol, α-amylase levels, along with anxiety and depression symptoms were measured to estimate stress response to TPL. Cumulative life stressors as traumas, social and familiar functioning were also registered. To examine the effect of the possible predictor variables of delivery date, linear regression models were used.
A correlation was found between the variables of response to chronic stress and between the variables of psychological response to stress. The main predictors of preterm delivery were low family adaptation, higher BMI, higher cortisol levels, and the week of diagnosis of TPL (<29 weeks of gestation).
The best predictor of delivery date was the combination of the stress response to the diagnosis of TPL measured by cortisol in saliva, cumulative life stressors (mainly family adaptation) and obstetric factors (week TPL and BMI). Through psychosocial therapeutic intervention programs, it is possible to influence this modifiable predictive factors of preterm birth in symptomatic women.
Maternal age and related factors, such as social vulnerability, are associated with neurodevelopmental and behavioral disorders in offspring.
To examine the influence of maternal age and its related factors on the appearance of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), alterations in executive functions and behavioral syndromes of the offspring.
A prospective study was conducted, consisting of 131 healthy pregnant women aged 20 to 41 years, recruited at 38 weeks’ gestation. Their offspring were followed up to 2 years after birth, when psychopatology was assessed. Maternal age and possible related factors were considered predictors. Bayesian ordinal regression models were performed for each outcome variable.
Symptoms of ASD in children were associated with an older maternal age (OR = 0.188; 95% CI[1.062, 1.401]) and a lower educational level of the parents (OR = -0.879; 95% CI[0.202, 0.832]), meanwhile poor social support predicted most ADHD symptoms OR = -0.086; 95% CI[0.838, 1]) and executive dysfunctions OR = -0.661; 95% CI[0.313, 0.845]. Lower parental education predicted both externalizing and internalizing behavior.
Maternal age-related factors were the main predictors of neurodevelopmental disorders in offspring, rather than maternal age. The performance of prenatal interventions in pregnant women with advanced age and anxious depressive symptoms or adverse social situation, is crucial to reduce the risk of neurodevelopmental disorders in the offspring. Likewise, being able to carry out an early detection of childhood psychopathology would allow the implementation of resources that improve their long-term prognosis.
Even though cognitive impairment is considered a hallmark of schizophrenia, it has not been included as a criterion into major diagnostic systems.
To test whether a set of clinical-defined cognitive impairment criteria can have utility in the assessment of psychosis patients in clinical practice.
We assessed 98 patients with a psychotic disorder, diagnosed using DSM 5 criteria. We developed a set of cognitive impairment associated with psychosis (CIAPs) criteria following the format of current DSM criteria and based on previous literature. The CIAPs criteria include: A) criterion for evidence of cognitive impairment after the beginning of illness; B) cognitive impairment clinically evidenced, affecting functioning in everyday activities in at least two out of six cognitive domains; C) and D) exclusion criterion for either delirium or other neurocognitive disorders, respectively, as causal agents of the cognitive impairment. The psychosis patients dichotomized by the CIAPs criteria were tested regarding the neuropsychological performance in attention, speed of processing, verbal memory, visual memory, working memory, executive function and social cognition tasks. Also a Global Cognitive Index was calculated.
Forty-three patients with psychosis fulfilled the CIAPs criteria (43.9%). MANOVA profile analyses revealed a pattern of statistically significant deficits in all the cognitive dimensions except for social cognition in CIAPs+ patients regarding CIAPS-, with prominent deficits in processing speed and memory functions.
The CIAPs criteria could be an auxiliary method for clinicians to assess cognitive impairment. It may also permit clinical estimation of the influence of cognitive deficits on the ecological functioning of patients.
Conflict of interest
This work was supported by the Government of Navarra (grants 17/31, 18/41, 87/2014) and the Carlos III Health Institute (FEDER Funds) from the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitivity (14/01621 and 16/02148). Both had no further role in the study des
The modern era of wine journalism has provided abundant information about wines and widespread use of numerical rating systems. A tiny difference, especially at the top of the distribution of ratings, may have striking consequences on wine sales and investment returns. This article provides a general framework to obtain a consensus among tasters’ opinions (reflected as numerical wine ratings) via three subsequent stages: normalization, approval, and aggregation. It is inspired by contributions in political science, social choice, game theory, and operations research. We apply it to the Judgment of Paris as well as to rank 2018 en-primeur Bordeaux wines, rated by five international experts. (JEL Classifications: C18, L15, L66)
Childhood obesity is associated with multiple cardio-metabolic abnormalities. A sensitive hypothesis underlying these alterations is oxidative stress, shown to be present in obesity, often accompanied by a diminished antioxidant defense. Specifically, plasma vitamin concentrations have been observed to be associated with obesity in adults and children. However, their association with cardio-metabolic alterations in children is less clear.
Materials and Methods
985 children (49.2% males, 71.7% prepubertal, 71.9% excess weight) were recruited in a case-control study of obesity in three Spanish hospitals. Pubertal status was assessed and anthropometry (weight, height), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP) and serum glucose, insulin, triacylglycerols (TAG) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were measured. Plasma concentrations of tocopherols and carotenes were determined with HPLC-MS and referred to TAG. Children were classified as MU if showing one or more of these criteria: SBP or DBP ≥ 90th percentile (age, sex, height), serum TAG > 90th percentile (age, sex), HDL-C < 10th percentile (age, sex), glucose ≥ 100 mg/dL or elevated HOMA-IR (≥ 2.5 prepubertal, ≥ 3.38 pubertal males, ≥ 3.905 pubertal females). Non-fulfillment was indicative of MH status. General linear models adjusted for sex, age, recruitment center and BMI were used to evaluate differences in vitamins between MH and MU children.
Prepubertal and pubertal children with excess weight showed lower tocopherols (Pre: 0.133 ± 0.061 vs 0.165 ± 0.065, P < 0.001; Pub: 0.120 ± 0.057 vs 0.163 ± 0.066, P < 0.001) and carotenes (Pre: 15.63 ± 13.72 vs 30.31 ± 26.04, P < 0.001; Pub: 12.34 ± 9.86 vs 22.98 ± 19.25, P < 0.001) plasma concentrations than normal-weight children. MU prepubertal and pubertal children showed lower tocopherols (Pre: 0.120 ± 0.056 vs 0.165 ± 0.064, P < 0.001; Pub: 0.111 ± 0.051 vs 0.154 ± 0.066, P < 0.001) and carotenes (Pre: 14.07 ± 12.61 vs 25.97 ± 21.94, P < 0.001; Pub: 10.90 ± 8.54 vs 19.03 ± 14.58, P < 0.001) plasma concentrations than MH children, independently of BMI. Individual MU components analyses showed similar associations between tocopherols and carotenes and insulin resistance, low HDL-C values and hypertriglyceridemia in prepubertal children; and between tocopherols and carotenes and elevated SBP, hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia in pubertal children.
Our findings agree with previous studies that showed decreased plasma concentrations of tocopherols and carotenes in children with obesity. However, we observe further implications of low circulating concentrations of non-enzymatic antioxidants in terms of their negative association with cardio-metabolic alterations such as insulin resistance and dyslipidemia in prepubertal and pubertal children, independently of BMI. These results must be considered when designing prevention and treatment strategies of obesity and its complications.
To identify factors associated with visits by patients with schizophrenia and related disorders to community mental health services, under the Mental Health Department of Carlos Haya Hospital in Malaga, Spain.
We undertook a cross-sectional study. Data on demographic and clinical factors and service use were obtained from the public mental health services database and centralized in the “Malaga Schizophrenia Case Register (RESMA)”. The outcome measure, defined as the total number of outpatient consultations during one year, was analyzed by multilevel multivariate linear regression.
The analysis included 1097 patients with diagnoses of schizophrenia and related disorders (F20-F29, ICD-10).The adjusted model explained 46.35% of the variance. Patients who contacted both types of professional (nurses and psychiatrists) had a higher number of visits compared to patients who only contacted a psychiatrist (p< 0.001), and the individual psychiatrist attending the patients was also associated with the number of visits (p< 0.001).Clinical variables, such as a higher global level of severity (p< 0.001), a diagnosis of a persistent delusion disorder and having an inpatient episode (p< 0.001), were also associated with a higher number of visits. Patients who were receiving welfare benefits or who had no formal education or were illiterate had a higher number of visits. Patients living alone, living outside the study area and living in more rural municipalities was associated with fewer ambulatory contacts.
Among all variables, the role of psychiatrists and nurses in organized outpatient settings present the strongest association with the number of visits by similar patients.
Introdution: Attitudes and opinions of people about schizophrenia is very important in order to understand the true situation of the disease. It is necessary to maneging the disease and developing good and realistic social and health politics addressed to fighing against the stigma and discrimination of people ho suffer this disease.
Knowing the opinions of general people about schizophrenia using a survey.
2895 People have answered the survey. 57,2% men and 42,5% men. 71,8% are 20 to 40 years old. Most of them are spanish (91,1%), but 6,5% anser from Latinamerica.
A question about the schizophrenia is given in order to compare with other events schizophrenia-related: : stigmatized, relation with violence, dificulties for living with others; for working alone, need to take drugs, difficult to obtain close relations, difficulties to obtain a job and not to be account.
Survey have been in the mundosalud website (www.mundosalud.es) for free access form 01/06/2006 to 15/09/2006. Everybody is invited to answer and a friendly interface is used in order to make easy participate. No payment is made for answering. During 2006 this web have been visited by 120.000 citizens.
Results and Conclusions
The results stablished that the most important problem considered by the schizophrenic patients is the difficulty for finding a job and maintaining social and personal relations. Besides, stigmatization is noticed very important too.
By the other hand, taking drugs and links between violence and disease are considered as a less important problem by the schizophrenic patients.
Cognitive deficits are a core feature of psychotic disorders. Both in adult and adolescent populations, studies have shown that patients with psychosis have poorer cognitive functioning than controls. The cognitive domains that seem to be affected are mainly attention, working memory, learning and memory, and executive function. However, with regard to the trajectory of cognitive function throughout the illness, there is still a dearth of prospective data in patients who develop psychosis during adolescence. In this article, neuropsychological functioning was assessed in a sample of 24 first episodes of early onset psychosis (EOP) and 29 healthy adolescents at baseline and after a two-year follow-up. Patients with EOP showed lower scores than controls in overall cognitive functioning and in all specific domains assessed (attention, working memory, executive function, and learning and memory) both at baseline and the two-year follow-up. When changes in cognitive functioning over two years were assessed, patients and controls showed significant improvement in almost all cognitive domains. However, this improvement disappeared in the patient group after controlling for improvement in symptomatology. Our findings support a neurodevelopmental pathological process in this sample of adolescents with psychosis.
Previous studies have found a relationship between job-related stress and depressive symptoms in different occupational groups, and that personality may modify the risk of developing depressive symptoms. We aimed to examine the association of personality and other individual and work conditions with depressive symptoms.
A sample of 498 teachers answered a questionnaire concerning individual and work characteristics, some job-related perceptions, and the wish to change jobs. Depressive symptoms were measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (CES-D) and personality was measured by the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI-125).
Depressive symptoms were associated with female gender, age, low job satisfaction, high job stress, the wish to change jobs, working at a public school, and with higher scores on harm avoidance and novelty seeking and lower scores on self-directedness.
Our results underline the influence of personality traits on the development of depressive symptoms independently of other individual characteristics and the occupational context.
Suicide is a major and preventable public health problem. Risk factors may vary with age, gender, or ethnic group, being substance abuse one of the most frequent.
To investigate the relation of substance related disorder and suicide attempt.
Review of the suicidal attempts of patients with personal history of substance related disorder attended during the year 2010.
We identified 85 cases.
Alcohol (64″3%) and cocaine (47″7%) were the two most identified substances. Cannabis (17″2%) and heroin (23″06%) were less consumed. Benzodiacepines abuse was very frequent among the patients attended (38″2%).
Previous attempts were found in 43″8% of the patients.
Drug overdose was the most commonly method used (98″4%), especially with benzodiacepines and antidepressants, but non psychiatric drugs were also frequent. Substance overdosage or intoxication was the second most frequent method used (23%), and poisoning the third (9%). Most of times these methods were presented with concomitant drug overdose.
Defenestration threats were very rare (2″34%), and always associated with hospitalization request by the patient.
We did find significant differences when studying triggers (family, partnership, economical or others) compared with non substance abusers suicidal attempts.
- Chronic substance misuse and acute substance abuse is associated with a higher risk of suicide, what may be explained by the disinhibiting effects of psychoactive substances.
- As benzodiazepine misuse is associated with suicide, special care must be taken when prescribing to at risk patients such as substance abusers