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African American Literature in Transition, 1980–1990 tracks Black expressive culture in the 1980s as novelists, poets, dramatists, filmmakers, and performers grappled with the contradictory legacies of the civil rights era, and the start of culture wars and policy machinations that would come to characterize the 1990s. The volume is necessarily interdisciplinary and critically promiscuous in its methodologies and objects of study as it reconsiders conventional temporal, spatial, and moral understandings of how African American letters emerged immediately after the movement James Baldwin describes as the 'latest slave rebellion.' As such, the question of the state of America's democratic project as refracted through the literature of the shaping presence of African Americans is one of the guiding concerns of this volume preoccupied with a moment in American literary history still burdened by the legacies of the 1960s, while imagining the contours of an African Americanist future in the new millennium.
Many graduate programs are sincerely invested in fostering diversity and increasing the number of students from underrepresented backgrounds who will contribute to our discipline. But increasing representation is only one step needed to address inequities, disparities, and injustices. Helping all students thrive, and have an equal opportunity to achieve their educational goals requires the creation of “safe spaces” in which demographic differences are understood, appreciated, and considered in larger educational systems. This chapter discusses a frequently overlooked identity characteristic that can significantly impact the graduate school experience: being a first-generation college student.
Little is known about selenium intakes and status in very young New Zealand children. However, selenium intakes below recommendations and lower selenium status compared to international studies have been reported in New Zealand (particularly South Island) adults. The Baby-Led Introduction to SolidS (BLISS) randomised controlled trial compared a modified version of baby-led weaning (infants feed themselves rather than being spoon-fed), with traditional spoon-feeding (Control). Weighed three-day diet records were collected and plasma selenium concentration measured using ICP-MS. In total, 101 (BLISS n=50, Control n=51) 12-month-old toddlers provided complete data. The odds of selenium intakes below the estimated average requirement was no different between BLISS and Control (OR: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.39, 2.03), and there was no difference in mean plasma selenium concentration between groups (0.04 μmol/L; 95% CI: -0.03, 0.11). In an adjusted model, consuming breast milk was associated with lower plasma selenium concentrations (-0.12 μmol/L; 95% CI: -0.19, -0.04). Of the food groups other than infant milk (breast milk or infant formula), “breads and cereals” contributed the most to selenium intakes (12% of intake). In conclusion, selenium intakes and plasma selenium concentrations of 12 month old New Zealand toddlers were no different between those who had followed a baby-led approach to complementary feeding and those who followed traditional spoon-feeding. However, more than half of toddlers had selenium intakes below the estimated average requirement.
Gastropods are an important component of subtidal Antarctic communities including in common association with macroalgae. Nonetheless, limited data exist detailing their abundance and distribution on macroalgal species. This study documents the abundance and species composition of gastropod assemblages on the two largest, blade-forming Antarctic macroalgae, Himantothallus grandifolius and Sarcopeltis antarctica, sampled across two depths (9 and 18 m) at four sites for each species off Anvers Island, Antarctica. Gastropods were also enumerated on Desmarestia anceps, Desmarestia antarctica and Plocamium sp. but were not included in the main analyses because of small sample sizes. There were major differences between the gastropod assemblages on deep vs shallow H. grandifolius and S. antarctica with much higher numbers of individuals and also greater numbers of gastropod species at the greater depth. Differences between the gastropod assemblages on H. grandifolius and S. antarctica across sampling sites were apparent in non-parametric, multivariate analyses, although depth contributed more than site to these differences. Within common sites, assemblages on H. grandifolius were significantly different from those on S. antarctica at 18 m depth but not at 9 m depth, indicating that the host species can be but is not always more important than site in influencing the gastropod assemblages.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: The primary goals of this study are 1) expand our understanding of the neural circuitry influenced by the neuropeptide Neuromedin U (NMU) via its receptor Neuromedin U Receptor 2 (NMUR2), and 2) provide alternative top-down mechanisms for how NMU regulates high fat food intake and cocaine taking. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Immunohistochemistry (IHC) for NMUR2 and cell markers was performed on rat brain tissue containing the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). To identify the source of the presynaptic NMUR2, anterograde tracing from the paraventricular nucleus or dorsal raphe nucleus to the mPFC utilizing an AAV2- dsRed-synaptobrevin fusion protein were performed (n=3) and will be followed by IHC. Using in vivo calcium imaging technology (InScopix nVista), neuronal activity (calcium transients) was recorded from the mPFC of two awake, freely behaving rats. Each animal underwent a single session of 30 minutes baseline activity, intraperitoneal NMU administration, and 30 minutes of post-treatment activity. Activity was then processed and recorded as distinct events using the InScopix data acquisition software. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Medial prefrontal cortex staining for NMUR2 revealed a characteristic “beads on a string” motif, consistent with presynaptic receptor expression. Furthermore, we expect the anterograde tracing experiment will show colocalization of the dsRed-synaptobrevin fusion protein with NMUR2 on synaptic inputs into the medial prefrontal cortex. Following quantification of pre- and post- treatment events using the InScopix data acquisition software, total events during the pre- and post-treatment time periods were calculated. In these studies, both animals demonstrated a clear increase in calcium transient activity between pre- and post- treatment evaluations, suggesting that NMU administration increases the neuronal activity of neurons in the prefrontal cortex. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This research provides a new site of action for the known therapeutic effects of NMU. We demonstrate the presence of presynaptic NMUR2 in the mPFC and show that systemic administration of NMU increases mPFC neuronal activity. This illustrates NMU may act as a top-down mediator for substance use disorders and binge eating behaviors.
Effects of gaps (rectangular surface cavities) on boundary-layer transition are investigated using a combination of linear stability theory and experiments, for boundary layers where the smooth-surface transition results from Tollmien–Schlichting (TS) instability. Results are presented for a wide range of gap characteristics, with the associated transition locations ranging from the smooth-surface location all the way forward to the gap location. The transition movement is well described by a variable $N$-factor, which links the gap characteristics to the level of instability amplification $e^N$ leading to transition. The gap effects on TS-wave transition are characterized by two limiting behaviours. For shallow gaps $d/w < 0.017$, the reduction in $N$-factor is a function of the gap depth $d$ and is independent of the gap width $w$. For deep gaps $d/w > 0.028$, the reduction in $N$-factor is a function of the gap width and is independent of the gap depth. When both the gap width and depth are sufficiently large relative to the displacement thickness $\delta ^*$, the TS-wave transition is bypassed, resulting in transition at the gap location. These behaviours are mapped out in terms of ($w/ \delta ^*$, $d/ \delta ^*$), providing a predictive model for gap effects on transition.
Many short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) originate from binary neutron star mergers, and there are several theories that predict the production of coherent, prompt radio signals either prior, during, or shortly following the merger, as well as persistent pulsar-like emission from the spin-down of a magnetar remnant. Here we present a low frequency (170–200 MHz) search for coherent radio emission associated with nine short GRBs detected by the Swift and/or Fermi satellites using the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) rapid-response observing mode. The MWA began observing these events within 30–60 s of their high-energy detection, enabling us to capture any dispersion delayed signals emitted by short GRBs for a typical range of redshifts. We conducted transient searches at the GRB positions on timescales of 5 s, 30 s, and 2 min, resulting in the most constraining flux density limits on any associated transient of 0.42, 0.29, and 0.084 Jy, respectively. We also searched for dispersed signals at a temporal and spectral resolution of 0.5 s and 1.28 MHz, but none were detected. However, the fluence limit of 80–100 Jy ms derived for GRB 190627A is the most stringent to date for a short GRB. Assuming the formation of a stable magnetar for this GRB, we compared the fluence and persistent emission limits to short GRB coherent emission models, placing constraints on key parameters including the radio emission efficiency of the nearly merged neutron stars (
), the fraction of magnetic energy in the GRB jet (
), and the radio emission efficiency of the magnetar remnant (
). Comparing the limits derived for our full GRB sample (along with those in the literature) to the same emission models, we demonstrate that our fluence limits only place weak constraints on the prompt emission predicted from the interaction between the relativistic GRB jet and the interstellar medium for a subset of magnetar parameters. However, the 30-min flux density limits were sensitive enough to theoretically detect the persistent radio emission from magnetar remnants up to a redshift of
. Our non-detection of this emission could imply that some GRBs in the sample were not genuinely short or did not result from a binary neutron star merger, the GRBs were at high redshifts, these mergers formed atypical magnetars, the radiation beams of the magnetar remnants were pointing away from Earth, or the majority did not form magnetars but rather collapse directly into black holes.
Racial and ethnic groups in the USA differ in the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Recent research however has not observed consistent racial/ethnic differences in posttraumatic stress in the early aftermath of trauma, suggesting that such differences in chronic PTSD rates may be related to differences in recovery over time.
As part of the multisite, longitudinal AURORA study, we investigated racial/ethnic differences in PTSD and related outcomes within 3 months after trauma. Participants (n = 930) were recruited from emergency departments across the USA and provided periodic (2 weeks, 8 weeks, and 3 months after trauma) self-report assessments of PTSD, depression, dissociation, anxiety, and resilience. Linear models were completed to investigate racial/ethnic differences in posttraumatic dysfunction with subsequent follow-up models assessing potential effects of prior life stressors.
Racial/ethnic groups did not differ in symptoms over time; however, Black participants showed reduced posttraumatic depression and anxiety symptoms overall compared to Hispanic participants and White participants. Racial/ethnic differences were not attenuated after accounting for differences in sociodemographic factors. However, racial/ethnic differences in depression and anxiety were no longer significant after accounting for greater prior trauma exposure and childhood emotional abuse in White participants.
The present findings suggest prior differences in previous trauma exposure partially mediate the observed racial/ethnic differences in posttraumatic depression and anxiety symptoms following a recent trauma. Our findings further demonstrate that racial/ethnic groups show similar rates of symptom recovery over time. Future work utilizing longer time-scale data is needed to elucidate potential racial/ethnic differences in long-term symptom trajectories.
Chapter 10 surveys a range of partial survey and non-survey estimation approaches for creating input–output tables at the regional level. Variants of the commonly used class of estimating procedures using location quotients are reviewed; these presume a regional estimate of input–output data can be derived using some information about a target region. Cross-hauling is discussed and approaches to address it are presented. The RAS technique developed in Chapter 9 is applied using a base national table or a table for another region and some available data for the target region. Techniques for partial survey estimation of commodity flows between regions are also presented along with discussions of several real-world multinational applications, including the China–Japan Transnational Interregional Model and Leontief’s World Model.
Chapter 11 expands the input–output framework to a broader class of economic analysis tools known as social accounting matrices (SAM) and other so-called extended input–output models to capture activities of income distribution in the economy in a more comprehensive and integrated way, including especially employment and social welfare features of an economy. The basic concepts of SAMs are explored and derived from the SNA introduced in Chapters 4 and 5, and the relationships between SAMs and input–output accounts are presented. The concept of SAM multipliers as well as the decomposition of SAM multipliers into components with specific economic interpretations are introduced and illustrated. Finally, techniques for balancing SAM accounts for internal accounting consistency are discussed and several illustrative applications of the use of SAMs are presented.
The introductory chapter recaps the genesis of the field of input–output or interindustry analysis as a widely utilized framework to analyze the interdependence of industries in an economy. The introduction chronicles how the input–output framework, conceived originally by Wassily Leontief in the 1930s, has matured over the last seven decades to become a key component of many types of economic analysis and one of the most widely applied methods in economics. This book presents the framework set forth by Leontief and explores the many extensions that have been developed, and the introduction concludes by summarizing the key features of the succeeding chapters, appendices, and related online resources chronicling those developments.
The Preface recaps the history of the development of the 1985, 2009, and current editions of the text and how the content has evolved with the discipline of input–output analysis. It also includes a summary of the principal updated and added material in this new edition.